10 Mind-Blowing Facts About Black Holes
Black holes are known as a region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape. Scientists believe that they are formed when the body of a huge star collapses in on itself.
In doing so it becomes so thick that it twists the fabric of space and time. Black holes are the only objects in the universe that can trap light by absolute gravitational force. Scientists believe that, any matter that crosses their event horizons, also known as the point of no return, helices helplessly toward an unknown fate. Here are some facts about these black holes, you may not know:
Black holes do not suck.
Some people believe that black holes suck in the space around them, but that’s a common misconception. Like others they are just objects in space, but the feature which make them exceptional is their very strong gravitational field.
The nearby stars sometimes shed their mass and the material falls into the grasp a nearby black hole. For example if you replaced the sun with a black hole of equal mass, the Earth would continue orbiting the black hole as it orbits the sun.
Einstein didn’t discover black holes.
It was not Einstein himself behind this concept but his theory. Karl Schwarzschild was the first to use Einstein’s revolutionary equations and showed that black holes could indeed form. He proposed this theory in 1915, at the start it was called as Schwarzschild radius, because it is actually a measurement that how small you’d have to compress any object to create a black hole. Black holes didn’t get their universal name until 1967.
Long before this, British polymath John Michell gave an idea about the existence of “dark stars” so massive or so compressed, that they could possess gravitational pulls so strong not even light could escape.
Black holes will spaghettify you and everything else.
Spaghettification is a phenomenon to stretch anything into a long spaghetti-like strand, and Black holes have this incredible ability. The concept works as how gravity behaves over distance.
We are going to elaborate this concept through an example, if you are standing straight, your feet would be more attracted to the center of the earth than your head, as they are closer to the center of the earth. But near a black hole, under extreme gravity this difference will start working against you.
The closer your feet, the faster they move. But the top half of your body is farther away and so is not moving toward the center as fast. Because of the gravitational pull, the result is Spaghettification!
Black holes could spawn new universes.
A research is going on and it might look crazy, that black holes could brood new universes. A very basic version of how this works is that our universe today, when you look at the numbers, has some exceptionally suitable conditions that came together to create life.
The individuality at the center of black holes breaks down our standard laws of physics and could, in theory, change these conditions and spawn a new universe.
Black holes literally pull the space around them.
When you place an object on the sheet, it sinks a little. More massive the object, deep the sheet sinks. Black holes has a such deep well in space, that nothing has enough energy to get back from it. Picture space as a stretched rubber sheet with crisscrossing grid lines.
Black holes are the ultimate energy factories.
Black holes can generate energy more efficiently than our sun. As the gravitational pull is much stronger near black hole, hence anything near it would move more quickly, and results in generating energy. Because the material is orbiting and moving so rapidly, it heats up to billions of degrees Fahrenheit, which has the ability to transform mass from the material into energy in the form what is called blackbody radiation. Fusion converts about 0.7% of mass into energy and black hole converts 10%.
There is a supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy.
Scientists believe there is be a supermassive black hole at the centreof nearly every galaxy, including our own. The black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A, is more than four million times more massive than our sun.
Black holes slow down time.
Time slows down as you reach the event horizon, the point of no return. As the faster you move, the slower the time passes. When you reach the event horizon, you are moving at such high speeds due to the strong gravitational force from the black hole that time will slow down.
Black holes evaporate over time.
Black holes might not be endless depths after all, and may be it is not impossible to get out of it, some energy might be able to escape them. This surprising discovery was first predicted by Stephen Hawking in 1974.
The phenomenon is called Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation scatters a black hole’s mass into space and over time will actually do this until there is nothing left, basically killing the black hole.
Anything can become a black hole, in theory.
It’s that gravitational field that can trap everything, including light, which is why we can’t see black holes and make it an exceptional thing. The only difference between a black hole and our sun is that the center of a black hole is made of extremely dense material.
You could theoretically turn anything into a black hole. If you shrunk our sun down to a size of only 3.7 miles across. But in reality, we only know of one way that can produce a black hole: The gravitational collapse of an extremely massive star that’s 20 to 30 times more massive than our sun. Adapted from: Physics-Astronomy