UK Astronaut’s Mission Logo Revealed
In partnership with ESA and the UK Space Agency, the BBC’s Blue Peter programme asked schoolchildren to design a mission patch for astronaut Tim Peake and received more than 3000 entries. The astronaut will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015 under the mission name of Principia. The name refers to Isaac Newton’s world-changing three-part text on physics, Naturalis Principia Mathematica, describing the principal laws of motion and gravity.
“Principia refers to Isaac Newton’s principal laws of gravity and motion so I drew an apple because that is how he discovered gravity,” said 13-year-old Troy, the competition winner. “Plus Tim Peake is promoting healthy eating as part of his mission and apples are healthy.”
Each ESA astronaut has a mission name and patch, often chosen in a competition held in the astronaut’s home country. In Tim’s case, the entries were reduced to 33 candidates for presentation to an expert panel of judges. The judges from ESA, Blue Peter and the UK Space Agency together chose their two favourites in each of the three age groups of 6–8, 9–11 and 12–15 years to ensure a fair chance for all applicants.
Trees, apples, spaceships and the UK were common elements but ESA graphic designer Karen Oldenburg was impressed by the variety: “The entries were amazingly diverse. It was obvious that each child had put a lot of individuality and inventiveness into each design.” Important considerations for deciding on the final six were how a design would look as a patch, the colours used and whether the children drew everything on their own.
The final decision came down to Tim himself. He had a hard time choosing: “I have been so impressed with the high standard and the number of entries. Wonderful! My final choice was not easy to make, but I chose Troy’s design because his patch was simple but included many references to my mission.” Troy will see his Principia patch flown to space and was invited to the Blue Peter television studios for the unveiling.
“Just landed in London-huge congrats to Troy for designing a brilliant patch! Thank you…I will wear it with pride,” Peake said. Ewan Vinnicombe, Blue Peter Editor, said, “It’s been fantastic to see all the thousands of colourful and creative entries we received for this Blue Peter competition. I was so impressed with them all and the winning design looks amazing. I can’t wait to see it in space.”
The five runners-up will receive their artwork framed with a signed photo from Tim. “For all you amazing runners-up, thanks for making it such a tough choice…I’ll be taking some of your designs into space too,” Peake said. Credit: ESA, gov.uk
ESA’s JUICE Mission OK’d for the Next Stage of Development
The European Space Agency’s JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission has been given the green light to proceed to the next stage of development. This approval is a milestone for the mission, which aims to launch in 2022 to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons. JUICE gained approval for its implementation phase from ESA’s Science Programme Committee during a meeting at the European Space Astronomy Centre near Madrid, Spain, on 19 and 20 November 2014.
Chosen by ESA in May 2012 to be the first large mission within the Cosmic Vision Programme, JUICE is planned to be launched in 2022 and to reach Jupiter in 2030. The mission will tour the giant planet to explore its atmosphere, magnetosphere and tenuous set of rings and will characterise the icy moons Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Detailed investigations of Ganymede will be performed when JUICE enters into orbit around it – the first time any icy moon has been orbited by a spacecraft. During its lifetime, the mission will give us an unrivalled and in-depth understanding of the Jovian system and of these moons.
The scientific goals of the mission are enabled by its instrument suite. This includes cameras, spectrometers, a radar, an altimeter, radio science experiments and sensors used to monitor the plasma environment in the Jovian system. In February 2013, the SPC approved the payload that will be developed by scientific teams from 16 European countries, the USA and Japan, through corresponding national funding.
The JUICE spacecraft will be launched in June 2022 by Ariane 5 and will use Venus and Earth gravity assists in its 7.6 years cruise to Jupiter. After the orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on continuous observations of Jupiter’s atmosphere and magnetosphere.
During the tour, gravity assists with Callisto and Ganymede will shape the trajectory. Two targeted Europa flybys are included focusing on composition of the non water-ice material, and the first subsurface sounding of an icy moon. Additional, Callisto gravity assists will be also used to raise the orbit inclination to almost 30° and to enable observations of the Jupiter polar regions. The frequent Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situmeasurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated eight months orbital tour around Ganymede during which the spacecraft will perform detailed investigation of the moon and its environment and will eventually impact on Ganymede.
At the November 2014 meeting of the SPC, the multilateral agreement for JUICE was also approved. This agreement provides the legal framework for provision of payload equipment and ongoing mission support between funding agencies. The parties to the agreement are the European Space Agency and the funding agencies of the European countries leading the instrument developments in the JUICE mission: the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy); the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (France); the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany); the Swedish National Space Board, and the United Kingdom Space Agency. Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Greece, Poland, and Switzerland participate via the PRODEX programme. Credit: ESA
ESA Gets New Leadership (Source: ESA)
Launch of Strela Rocket From Baikonur Delayed for Technical Reasons(Source: Itar-Tass)
Russian Strela Rocket Launches Kondor-E (Source: NasaSpaceFlight.com)
Arianespace Soyuz ST-B Launches Four O3b Satellites (Source: NasaSpaceFlight.com)
Indian Launch’s Price Tag Was $25 Million (Source: Radio Australia)
Europe Prepares for Asteroid Strikes (Source: ESA)
The exercise considered the threat from an imaginary, but plausible, asteroid, initially thought to range in size from 12 m to 38 m – spanning roughly the range between the 2013 Chelyabinsk airburst and the 1908 Tunguska event – and traveling at 12.5 km/s. (12/18)
ESA on Tuesday concluded a productive one-day Council meeting at ministerial level in Luxembourg. Ministers of ESA Member States agreed the further development of a family of new launchers, and approved funding for the International Space Station and space exploration including extra cash needed to proceed with Europe’s ExoMars missions to the Red Planet in 2016 and 2018. In addition, Ministers set a course for ESA to remain an independent, world-class intergovernmental space organisation.
The space station funding included the remaining payments needed to build the propulsion module for NASA’s second Orion deep-space crew capsule, which is slated to pay an unmanned visit to near-lunar space in 2017 or 2018. The speed of the decision-making — government ministers arrived here Dec. 1 and wrapped up their work to leave early in the evening Dec. 2 — belied the substantial stresses before the meeting between three of ESA’s top four contributors, France, Germany and Italy.
A key area of contention was settled on the eve of the ministerial conference, with Germany agreeing to France’s plan to skip a proposed upgrade to the existing Ariane 5 rocket and proceed directly to the Ariane 6. The Ariane 6 will come in two sizes—the A62 and the A64. The A62 will have two boosters and will launch medium sized satellites, with a payload of up to 5 tonnes. The A64 will be able to launch the large commercial communications satellites, two at a time, and with a maximum payload of 11 tonnes.
Industry officials said that, on occasion, the heavier Ariane 64 vehicle will have to be sold at cost — about 91 million euros for a vehicle carrying two commercial satellites into geostationary orbit — to remain competitive. ESA governments plan to spend nearly 8.2 billion euros ($10.2 billion) over 10 years on launch-related programs. Slightly more than half of this will go to developing the new Ariane 6, to be operational in 2020. The rocket will feature either two or four solid-rocket strap-on boosters, depending on the mission.
ESA Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain said at a press briefing after the conference, the Ariane 6 program will be subject to a late-2016 review at which its operating assumptions will be tested in light of the program’s progress between now and then.
After the meeting, Jean-Yves Le Gall, President of the French space agency, CNES, said in a statement: “United, European space comes out of this meeting victorious. Today the total success of the meeting shaped the European space industry for tomorrow. “It is a demonstration of the success of ESA, the European Union, its member states and its industry. I am proud that CNES has played a key role in building a communal vision for Ariane 6 that has achieved this success. The launcher we dreamed of, Europe will build!” The next Council at Ministerial level is scheduled for 2016 in Switzerland.Credit: ESA, spacenews.com, sen.com
ESA Recovers Wayward Navigation Satellite
Europe’s fifth Galileo satellite, one of two delivered into a wrong orbit by VS09 Soyuz-Fregat launcher in August, has transmitted its first navigation signal in space on Saturday 29 November 2014. It has reached its new target orbit and its navigation payload has been successfully switched on. A detailed test campaign is under way now the satellite has reached a more suitable orbit for navigation purposes. The fifth and sixth Galileo satellites, launched together on 22 August, ended up in an elongated orbit travelling up to 25 900 km above Earth and back down to 13 713 km.
A total of 11 manoeuvres were performed across 17 days, gradually nudging the fifth satellite upwards at the lowest point of its orbit. As a result, it has risen more than 3500 km and its elliptical orbit has become more circular. “The manoeuvres were all normal, with excellent performance both in terms of thrust and direction,” explained Daniel Navarro-Reyes, ESA Galileo mission analyst. “The final orbit is as we targeted and is a tribute to the great professionalism of all the teams involved.”
The commands were issued from the Galileo Control Centre by Space Opal, the Galileo operator, at Oberpfaffenhofen in Germany, guided by calculations from a combined flight dynamics team of ESA’s Space Operations Centre, ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany and France’s CNES space agency. The commands were uploaded to the satellite via an extended network of ground stations, made up of Galileo stations and additional sites coordinated by France’s CNES space agency. Satellite manufacturer OHB also provided expertise throughout the recovery, helping to adapt the flight procedures.
Until the manoeuvres started, the combined ESA–CNES team maintained the satellites pointing at the Sun using their gyroscopes and solar sensors. This kept the satellites steady in space but their navigation payloads could not be used reliably. In the new orbit, the satellite’s radiation exposure has also been greatly reduced, ensuring reliable performance for the long term. The revised, more circular orbit means the fifth satellite’s Earth sensor can be used continuously, keeping its main antenna oriented towards Earth and allowing its navigation payload to be switched on. Significantly, the orbit means that it will now overfly the same location on the ground every 20 days. This compares to a normal Galileo repeat pattern of every 10 days, effectively synchronising its ground track with the rest of the Galileo constellation.
The satellite’s navigation payload was activated on 29 November, to begin the full ‘In-Orbit Test’ campaign. This is being performed from ESA’s Redu centre in Belgium, where a 20 m-diameter antenna can study the strength and shape of the navigation signals at high resolution. “First, the various payload elements, especially the Passive Hydrogen Maser atomic clock, were warmed up, then the payload’s first ‘signal in space’ was transmitted,” said David Sanchez-Cabezudo, managing the test campaign. “The satellite-broadcast L-band navigation signal is monitored using the large antenna at Redu, with experts from OHB and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd – the payload manufacturer, based in Guildford, UK – also on hand to analyse how it performs over time.”
The first Galileo FOC navigation signal-in-space transmitting in the three Galileo frequency bands (E5/E6/L1) was tracked by Galileo Test User Receivers deployed at various locations in Europe, namely at Redu (B), ESTEC (NL), Weilheim (D) and Rome (I). The quality of the signal is good and in line with expectations. The Search And Rescue (SAR) payload will be switched on in few days in order to complement the in-orbit test campaign. The same recovery manoeuvres are planned for the sixth satellite, taking it into the same orbital plane but on the opposite side of Earth.
The decision whether to use the two satellites for Navigation and SAR purposes as part of the Galileo constellation will be taken by the European Commission based on the test results. Galileo is Europe’s own global satellite navigation system. It will consist of 30 satellites and their ground infrastructure. The definition phase and the development and In-Orbit Validation phase of the Galileo programme were carried out by ESA and co-funded by ESA and the European Union. This phase has created a mini-constellation of four satellites and a reduced ground segment dedicated to validating the overall concept.
The four satellites launched during the IOV phase form the core of the constellation that is being extended to reach Full Operational Capability (FOC). The FOC phase is fully funded by the European Commission. The Commission and ESA have signed a delegation agreement by which ESA acts as design and procurement agent on behalf of the Commission .Credit: ESA
European Extremely Large Telescope Gets Green Light for Construction
At a recent meeting, European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) main governing body, the Council, gave the green light for the construction of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) in two phases. Spending of around one billion euros has been authorised for the first phase, which will cover the construction costs of a fully working telescope with a suite of powerful instruments and first light targeted in ten years time. It will enable tremendous scientific discoveries in the fields of exoplanets, the stellar composition of nearby galaxies and the deep Universe. The largest ESO contract ever, for the telescope dome and main structure, will be placed within the next year.
The E-ELT will be a 39-metre aperture optical and infrared telescope sited on Cerro Armazones in the Chilean Atacama Desert, 20 kilometres from ESO’s Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal. It will be the world’s largest “eye on the sky”. “The decision taken by Council means that the telescope can now be built, and that major industrial construction work for the E-ELT is now funded and can proceed according to plan. There is already a lot of progress in Chile on the summit of Armazones and the next few years will be very exciting,” said Tim de Zeeuw, ESO’s Director General.
The construction of the E-ELT was approved by ESO’s Council in June 2012 under the condition that contracts with a value larger than 2 million euros could only be awarded once the total cost of the telescope (1083 million euros at 2012 prices) was funded to a 90% level. An exception was granted for the civil works at the site, which started with the groundbreaking ceremony in June 2014 and are making good progress.
For the time being, 10% of the overall project costs have been shifted to a second phase. With the accession of Poland to ESO, the current funding commitments to the E-ELT have now reached more than 90% of the total cost of the first phase that will bring a fully working E-ELT. Additional commitments from upcoming Member State Brazil are expected in the coming years.
To prevent the project from slipping, the ESO Council has decided that construction of the first phase of the 39-metre telescope can now proceed. This funded work includes the contract for the telescope’s dome and main structure — the largest in ESO’s history — which will be awarded in late 2015, and leads to the construction of a fully working E-ELT. If more funding becomes available before 2017, then the target first light of 2024 will be maintained.
The E-ELT will be operated as an integral part of the ESO observatories. The operating cost includes not only the cost of running the observatory in Chile, but also the cost of operation support in Garching as well as re-investment costs for telescope upgrades and new instruments/cameras for the telescope. The total operating cost is estimated to be 50 million euros per year.
Telescope components that are not yet funded include parts of the adaptive optics system, some of the instrument work, the innermost five rings of segments of the telescope’s main mirror (210 mirror segments) and a spare set of primary mirror segments needed for more efficient telescope operation in the future. The construction of these components, whose postponement does not reduce the extraordinary scientific achievements the telescope will already be able to accomplish at the end of phase one, will be approved as additional funding becomes available, including that expected from the upcoming Member State Brazil.
The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) will have a 39-metre mirror (almost half the length of a soccer pitch) and will thus be the biggest telescope in the world — by far — to observe in the visible and the near-infrared (there are larger radio telescopes). The current largest optical telescopes have diameters of up to ten metres, and the E-ELT’s diameter will thus be four times greater. This diameter was chosen because it is the minimum diameter needed to achieve some of the driving science cases.
“The funds that are now committed will allow the construction of a fully working E-ELT that will be the most powerful of all the extremely large telescope projects currently planned, with superior light collecting area and instrumentation. It will allow the initial characterisation of Earth-mass exoplanets, the study of the resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies as well as ultra-sensitive observations of the deep Universe,” concludes Tim de Zeeuw. ESO
Mysterious Explosion Lights Up the Sky Over Russia
A huge flash lit up the early evening darkness, as shown by images taken from a dashcam on a road close to Yekaterinburg, Russia. The sky suddenly turns orange-red at 17.39 local time (though the dashcam records it as 18.39). For the next 11 seconds an orange light with yellow and white in the middle engulfs the entire sky. ‘For a few moments night turned into dazzling day, then everything went dark again,’ said one witness. The explosion came on 14 November, strangely no sound was picked up. Theories for the explosion included a missile or an object from space. Yet it did not have the same shape or pattern as the Chelyabinsk meteorite which exploded over the Urals in February 2013.
The author of the footage wrote on the web: ‘On Friday (November 14 , 2014 at 5.40pm) I observed a flash in the sky, on the road on the way to Rezh. ‘I found nothing about it in the news. Did anyone else see it? What was it?’ The glow was also filmed by the teenagers from Yekaterinburg on mobile cameras. The main question from witnesses is ‘What was it?’ “Looks like a falling bolide, which invaded us. Because of the low cloud cover it ceased to exist above the clouds and lit up the whole sky,” a member of the meteorites committee of the Russian Academy of Sciences Viktor Grokhovsky told 66.ru.
Vadim Krushinsky, doubted his colleague’s theory, saying the color of the flash does not support the asteroid speculation. The shade of light depends on the body’s temperature, and flashes caused by bolides are usually whiter, he explained to Ekburg.tv. The observatory engineer suggested his own theory, saying a space rocket launch might have been the cause. According to regional television neither meteorologists nor scientists can explain the strange phenomenon. A local observatory indicated nothing fell from the sky on the day of the flash. Local officials from the Emergencies Ministry refused to comment on the happening. Credit: siberiantimes.com, rt.com
Is Mystery Russian Space Object a Satellite-killer?
A mysterious object launched by the Russian military is being tracked by western space agencies, stoking fears over the revival of a defunct Kremlin project to destroy satellites. For the past few weeks, amateur astronomers and satellite-trackers in Russia and the west have followed the unusual manoeuvres of Object 2014-28E, watching it guide itself towards other Russian space objects. The pattern appeared to culminate last weekend in a rendezvous with the remains of the rocket stage that launched it. Space object 2014-28E, known in the international catalogue as Kosmos 2499. was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia on 23 May alongside three communications satellites. The U.S. Air Force Space Command is believed to be monitoring it closely.
The three satellites that launched alongside it – Kosmos 2496, 2497 and 2498 – are thought to be for military communications, says David Todd, an analyst with space-flight data provider Seradata of Welford, UK. “The fourth spacecraft, Kosmos 2499, is making regular changes to its orbit, including making a visit on 28 October to the Briz-M rocket stage that launched it,” he says.
Kosmos 2499 purpose is unknown, and could be civilian: a project to hoover up space junk, for example. Or a vehicle to repair or refuel existing satellites. But interest has been piqued because Russia did not declare its launch – and by the object’s peculiar, and very active, precision movements across the skies.
Russia officially mothballed its anti-satellite weaponry programme – Istrebitel Sputnikov or satellite killer – after the fall of the iron curtain, though its expertise has not entirely disappeared. Indeed, military officials have publicly stated in the past that they would restart research in the event of a deterioration in relations with the US over anti-missile defence treaties. In 2010, Oleg Ostapenko, commander of Russia’s space forces, and now head of its space agency, said Russia was again developing “inspection” and “strike” satellites.
“Whatever it is, [Object 2014-28E] looks experimental,” said Patricia Lewis, research director at think-tank Chatham House and an expert in space security. “It could have a number of functions, some civilian and some military. One possibility is for some kind of grabber bar. Another would be kinetic pellets which shoot out at another satellite. Or possibly there could be a satellite-to-satellite cyber attack or jamming.”
All the big space-faring nations — Russia, China and the U.S. — are developing similar capabilities, Robert Christy, a veteran amateur satellite tracker, told The Moscow Times. “In a nutshell, you’ve got all three countries doing the same thing,” he said.
Dr. James Oberg, a former NASA engineer and expert on the Russian space program told The Moscow Times: “Autonomous rendezvous by small satellites has always been considered a useful capability, for purposes of resupply, repair, inspection or even negation. … The fact that the recent Chinese and Russian experiments have been done with no official announcements, and appear independent of already existing [civilian] rendezvous systems, does suggest to me they are not for peaceful purposes.”
Oberg said killer satellites can be deployed into much higher orbits, where vital navigation, communication, and observation satellites are deployed, than ground-launched anti-satellite missiles, making the technology demonstrated by Kosmos 2499 militarily significant. The U.S. Air Force maintains a database of all known objects orbiting Earth — including Russian and Chinese, but not U.S., military spacecraft — which amateur space trackers use to monitor the activity of satellites and spacecraft.
But although space is being watched, the inherent dual-use nature of space technology makes it easy to clothe military escapades in civilian clothing. It is easy to measure capability, but not intent. And on capability Russia is not ahead of the pack. Indeed, Earth’s orbit has seen plenty of potential satellite killers: “A tiny British satellite attempted such a feat and almost succeeded in the summer of 2000. The U.S. performed such maneuvers at least twice [since then]. And China performed at least three such missions in the last four years,” said Igor Lissov, editor of Novosti Kosmonavtiki, a popular Russian space journal. Credit: ft.com, newscientist.com, themoscowtimes.com
|China Launches CBERS-4 on 200th Long March Mission (Source: Xinhua)
China launched the CBERS-4 satellite, jointly developed with Brazil, on Sunday from the Taiyuan base by Long March-4B rocket, the 200th launch of Long March rocket family. The rocket blasted off at 11:26 a.m., lifting the earth resource satellite into its planned orbit, according to the Taiyuan satellite launch center in north China’s Shanxi Province.CBERS-4 is the fifth satellite in the Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS) program which began in 1988. They are used in planning and land management, forestry, water conservation, environmental protection and agriculture. (12/7)China Outlines Space Station, Moon and Mars Plans (Source: Parabolic Arc)
China hopes to put a rover on Mars around 2020, complete a manned space station around 2022 and test a heavy carrier rocket around 2030, a top space scientist revealed Sunday. A feasibility study on the country’s first Mars mission is completed and the goal is now to send an orbiter and rover to Mars….The Tiangong-2 space lab will be launched around 2016 along with the Shenzhou-11 spacecraft and Tianzhou-1 cargo ship. Around 2018, a core experimental module for the station will be put in place. By around 2022, China’s first orbiting space station should be completed. It will consist of three parts — a core module attached to two labs, each weighing about 20 tonnes.A powerful carrier rocket is essential for a manned moon landing. The rocket is envisaged as having a payload capacity of 130 tonnes to low Earth orbit. Once in service, it will help with missions between 2030 and 2050, and secure China’s position in terms of space exploration and technology. (12/7)Czechs Ignoring Space (Source: Prague Post)
The Czech membership contribution to the European Space Agency (ESA) fell by as much as 50 percent over the past two years, which may threaten the future of space research in the country, said Jan Kolar, director of the Czech Space Office. In 2012, the Czech Republic pledged to provide €20 million, but now it is only giving half of the sum, Kolar said.
As Czech space research is mainly financed from ESA programs, this will largely affect the future of the scientific field, he added. The Czechs’ chances to take part in the programs of the biggest European research organization will diminish, Kolar said. He said there was no concept of Czech space research and Czech experts had to be gaining money in their own right, he added. (12/5)
British Company Aims to Send a Crowdfunded Mission to the Moon Around 2024
A British company is crowdfunding its space mission on Kickstarter, raising money to go to the Moon in 10 years’ time. Lunar Mission One aims to land on the Moon’s South Pole, drill to a depth of at least 20 metres deep, but potentially as deep as 100 metres, allowing the mission to access and analyse for the first time lunar rock dating back around 4.5 billion years. “Lunar Mission One will make a huge contribution to our understanding of the origins of our planet and the Moon and will inspire a generation to learn more about space, science and engineering – in the same way that my generation was inspired by the Apollo Moon landings,” said David Iron, the Founder of Lunar Missions Ltd and the Lunar Missions Trust.
Lunar Mission One is using crowdfunding platform Kickstarter to fund the development phase of the project. Supporters who make pledges to the project via Kickstarter will become lifetime members of the Lunar Missions Club. They will have access to a range of information and experiences relating to the project, from “Meet the Experts” events to the opportunity to have their name inscribed on the lunar landing module.Kickstarter backers will also receive rewards including a digital “memory box” for inclusion in a 21st Century time capsule that will be sent to and buried in the Moon as part of Lunar Mission One.
The company hopes to raise £600,000 for the development phase — as of Thursday it had raised £230,000 through over 2,400 backers, which is still quickly growing. Following the development phase, funded by Kickstarter, the remaining funding requirements of the project will primarily be met through sales of digital memory boxes to the general public, as well as through public sector and commercial backing.
Also included in the time capsule will be a publicly assembled, owned and authoritative record of life on Earth. This ‘public archive’ will include a record of human history and civilisation to date alongside a species database showing the biodiversity of animals and plants. The project will make the public archive available online both during development and afterwards so it can be developed further.The scientific goals of the mission would be achieved by drilling at a lunar pole. The drill will carry instruments to measure geological conditions and chemical compositions. After the drilling, instruments including seismometers will be placed into the borehole to get more accurate readings.
By drilling down to a depth of at least 20 metres, 10 times further than ever drilled before (though potentially as deep as 100 metres), we will be able to access and analyse lunar rock that is 4.5 billion years old. Studying rock from deep below the surface will allow us to understand, better than ever before, the geological composition of the Moon, the relationship it shares with our planet and the effects of the late heavy bombardment period on the inner solar system.
“Scientific exploration has always been based on innovation and ambition,” said Ian Taylor, the former Minister for Science, Technology & Space and Chair of Lunar Missions Ltd. “Lunar Mission One exemplifies this – not only in what it will seek to discover, but in reaching out to the wider public for involvement in and financing the project. Ultimately, Lunar Mission One could become an exciting template for galvanising additional resources to explore the Moon and beyond.
Education and inspiration are central to the mission, which aims to inspire a generation to learn more about space, science, engineering and technology through a worldwide programme of educational engagement. Educational partners backing the project include The Institute of Education and the Open University.
“The Moon is our nearest celestial neighbor, yet remains largely unknown beyond great orbital photographs and a few rocks from the surface. Lunar Mission One aims to profoundly change this!” said Richard Garriott, Private British-American astronaut of Soyuz TMA-13. “By targeting the polar regions now known to have water ice, and by drilling down more than 20 meters, we should gain much more interesting and useful data than previous lunar missions!”
All surplus funds raised from the project will go to a non-profit charitable Trust for supporting future space science and exploration. As overall technical advisors for the first stage of the project, Lunar Mission One has engaged RAL Space, which has been involved in developing more than 200 space missions and has supported NASA and European Space Agency missions.
“Lunar Mission One is both ambitious and innovative, demonstrating an exciting way of enabling lunar exploration. Our experience in multiple and complex space missions will play a vital role in helping coordinate the project. As well as direct exploration benefits, the mission will have longer term advantages including technological advances and knowledge,” said RAL Space Director Richard Holdaway. Lunar Mission One is being run by Lunar Missions Ltd, its operating company. It is being developed and supported by a number of leading figures and organisations in the industry with decades of experience in the science and space sectors.
Partners and advisors include RAL Space, University College London, Open University and the Institute of Education. Trustees and directors include Ian Taylor, former UK Government Science Minister; Monica Grady, Professor of Planetary & Space Science at Open University; Sir Graeme Davies, Former University Vice Chancellor; and Angela Lamont, broadcast media presenter & producer.Credit: lunarmissionone.com
Africa’s First Mission to the Moon Announced
Africa is home to 7 out of 10 of the world’s fastest-growing economies. It’s population is also the “youngest” in the world, with 50% of the population being 19 years old or younger. And amongst these young people are scores of innovators and entrepreneurs who are looking to bring homegrown innovation to their continent and share it with the outside world.
Nowhere is this more apparent than with the #Africa2Moon Mission, a crowdfunded campaign that aims to send a lander or orbiter to the Moon in the coming years.
Spearheaded by the Foundation for Space Development – a non-profit organization headquartered in Capetown, South Africa – the goal of this project is to fund the development of a robotic craft that will either land on or establish orbit around the Moon. Once there, it will transmit video images back to Earth, and then distribute them via the internet into classrooms all across Africa.
In so doing, the project’s founders and participants hope to help the current generation of Africans realize their own potential. Or, as it says on their website: “The #Africa2Moon Mission will inspire the youth of Africa to believe that ‘We Can Reach for the Moon’ by really reaching for the moon!”
Through their crowdfunding and a social media campaign (Twitter hashtag #Africa2Moon) they hope to raise a minimum of $150,000 for Phase I, which will consist of developing the mission concept and associated feasibility study. This mission concept will be developed collaboratively by experts assembled from African universities and industries, as well as international space experts, all under the leadership of the Mission Administrator – Professor Martinez.
Martinez is a veteran when it comes to space affairs. In addition to being the convener for the space studies program at the University of Cape Town, he is also the Chairman of the South African Council for Space Affairs (the national regulatory body for space activities in South Africa). He is joined by Johnathon Weltman, the Project Administrator, who is both an aeronautical engineer and the current CEO of the Foundation for Space Development.
Phase I is planned to run from Jan to Nov 2015 and will be the starting point for Phase II of #Africa2Moon, which will be a detailed mission design. At this point, the #Africa2Moon mission planners and engineering team will determine precisely what will be needed to see it through to completion and to reach the Moon.
Beyond inspiring young minds, the program also aims to promote education in the four major fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (aka STEM). Towards this end, they have pledged to commit 25% of all the funds they raise towards STEM education through a series of #Africa2Moon workshops for educators and students. In addition, numerous public engagement activities will be mounted in partnership with other groups committed to STEM education, science awareness, and outreach.
Africa is so often thought of as a land in turmoil – a place that is perennially plagued by ethnic violence, dictators, disease, drought, and famine. This popular misconception belies very positive facts about the growing economy of world’s second-largest and second-most populous continent.
That being said, all those working on the #Africa2Moon project hope it will enable future generations of Africans to bridge the humanitarian and economic divide and end Africa’s financial dependence on the rest of the world. It is also hoped that the mission will provide a platform for one or more scientific experiments, contribute to humankind’s knowledge of the moon, and form part of Africa’s contribution to global space exploration activities.
The project’s current list of supporters include the SpaceLab at the University of Cape Town, The South African Space Association, Women in Aerospace Africa, The Cape Town Science Centre, Space Commercial Services Group, Space Advisory Company, and the Space Engineering Academy. They have also launched a seed-funding campaign drive through its partnership with the UN Foundation’s #GivingTuesday initiative.
Russia’s Energomash Plans Reusable Rocket Engine
Russia’s NPO Energomash, one of the world’s leading rocket engine manufacturers, has cooked up an ambitious plan to make its engines reusable up to ten times, TASS news reports.
Reusability is the buzzword of the modern space industry. Born of exorbitant Cold War budgets, space programs across the globe have struggled over the last two decades to survive with less funding — and reusability is the key to radically cutting down costs.
Energomash has devised a novel, albeit limited, solution to the problem of returning rocket parts safely to Earth. The company proposes housing its RD-191 engine in a capsule attached to the bottom of Russia’s Angara rockets. After the engine has exhausted its fuel, the capsule will detach and fall back to Earth, protected by a heat shield on one side.
A parachute will deploy once the capsule hits the atmosphere, allowing the engine to land safely either with the help of a special airbag or small rockets to slow its descent. The added weight of this recovery system would knock 2.6 percent off of the Angara rocket’s payload capacity, or the maximum weight it can lift to a given altitude above the earth. The proposal was presented at a conference hosted by Russia’s largest space company, RSC Energia, TASS reported Friday.
On the other side of the globe, U.S.-based SpaceX is also moving forward with ambitious reusable designs. The company is working to make its Falcon 9 and upcoming Falcon Heavy rockets — which Angara is often compared to — completely reusable, with the entire rocket returning to Earth and landing itself.
Angara, the first rocket developed by the post-Soviet Russian space industry, was originally also designed to be entirely reusable. Its boosters to deploy wings after use that would allow the rocket to fly back home and land like an airplane. This design was ultimately dropped in favor of the conventional single-use approach. Credit: themoscowtimes.com
Russia Plans to Launch Remote Earth Probe Satellites
Russia plans to launch two satellites next year for remote earth probing. The satellites, Resource-P 3, which is under construction now, according to schedule, and Kanopus-V 2, are planned to be launched next year, deputy head of the Roscosmos federal space agency Mikhail Khailov told a conference on remote earth probing on Friday. The construction of Resource-P 2 is already finished.
Its launch is planned for December this year. Launches of Resources-P 4 and 5 are planned for 2016 and 2017. They will be made entirely from Russian-made components.The Roscosmos official also said that tests of Meteor-M 2 were completed.
When the documentation processing is finished, a state commission will decide when to put the satellite into operation. Meteor-M 2 was launched from Baikonur on July 8 with the Soyuz-2.1b rocket and a Fregat upper stage. The launch was originally planned for June 28, but was postponed because of Fregat problems. In the Russian orbital group are Electro-L, Reosurce-DK1, Resource-P, Kanopus-V, Meteor-M 1 and Meteor-M 2. Credit: TASS
Glasgow Prestwick Airport’s Very Good Position For UK’s First Spaceport
Scottish government-owned Glasgow Prestwick Airport is in a good position to become the UK’s first spaceport, the deputy first minister has said. But Nicola Sturgeon said ministers could not make the loss-making Ayrshire airport a preferred bidder while the process was at an early stage. Supporters of spaceport status say it could transform Prestwick. The airport was bought over by the government in a last-ditch effort to keep it open. Its 2013-14 accounts, due to be published shortly, are expected to show an annual loss of about £5m.
Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) Adam Ingram, who represents Carrick, Cumnock and Doon Valley, stressed the “exciting prospect” of Prestwick becoming a spaceport, as he said: “Should the Scottish Government’s position not be that Prestwick Airport is the preferred bid of the Scottish Government for the first UK spaceport?”
John Scott, MSP for Ayr, said the proposal was the “one truly visionary element of the document”. He said: “As the location of choice, and quite self evidently from the evidence I’ve seen it is the location of choice in Scotland, we should all get behind it, all of us as politicians and particularly the Scottish Government, because that would carry much more weight.”
Sturgeon told MSPs the government must remain neutral at this stage in the process, with eight UK sites in contention to become a spaceport – six of them in Scotland. She added: “We want to make sure that we’re doing everything to secure Scotland as the winner of this bid, wherever in Scotland that may end up being. “We may well get to the stage where the government is not neutral, not all of the locations bid or there is clearly an outstanding bid, but we’re at an early stage of this process, so I think it is important we recognise that.”
The proposal to attract a spaceport to Prestwick was laid out in a long-term vision for the future of the airport, which is used by budget airline Ryanair. Scottish ministers have committed £10m of investment to Prestwick Airport, which is going towards operating costs, a repairs backlog and improvements to the terminal building. Credit: bbc.com, stv.tv
Russia and Belarus to Use New Vostochny Space Launch Facility Jointly
Russia’s Federal Space Agency Roscosmos said it would allow Belarus to participate in national space research programmes carried out at Vostochny. The Vostochny space launch site is in Russia’s Amur region in the Far East. To begin operation next year. The facility is located near the town of Uglegorsk. More than 400 facilities, including 120 launchers, an airfield with a 4,500-meter runway, more than 170 kilometers of railways and roads are to be built at Vostochny. The first launches are to start in 2015. The construction of launch facilities for the Angara rocket will get under way in 2016.
Russia also plans to start launching manned spaceships from Vostochny in 2018. Vice-Premier Dmitry Rogozin, who visits Vostochny at least once in three months, has taken the construction works, to be finished in 2020, under personal control.“We have very tough deadlines. The Vostochny spaceport is to begin operation in 2015. We will be ready to implement not only national programs but also the programs of Belarus which is a full-fledged space power,” Yuri Makarov, the head of the Roscosmos strategic planning department, said in his speech at the Belarusian space congress in Minsk.Russia and Belarus have already created a successfully functioning orbital satellite group, which is being used in the interests of both states.
Minsk has ground-based facilities for space research: the Satellite Control Center; a command and measurement complex; a facility for receipt, handling and distribution of space information. Belarus became a full-fledged member of the space powers club in the summer of 2012 when Belarus launched its first spacecraft from Baikonur space launch facility in Kazakhstan.“The Union State /of Russia and Belarus/ have successfully implemented four programs. About 50 Belarusian and Russian enterprises are currently working on new projects,” Makarov said.
The development of a nanosatellite for Peru is one of the most promising Russian-Belarusian projects. The satellite is to carry out orbital experiments on prediction of earthquakes. The two countries are creating an inter-state system for space monitoring of emergency situations as part of a CIS cooperation programme.The new space monitoring system is to be based on the Russian GLONASS navigation system. The question will be part of the agenda of the 2015 Minsk conference of representatives of the CIS executive power bodies in charge of space cooperation. The Commonwealth of Independent States’ accession to the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters will also be a topic for discussion. Credit: TASS
Russia Aims for Phobos, Postpones Automatic Lunar Exploration Program
Russia may attempt to repeat its mission to Mars’ moon Phobos in 2023, Lev Zeleny, the head of the Russian Space Research Institute told RIA Novosti recently. The Russian-led mission Phobos-Grunt (or Fobos-Grunt) was launched on November 9, 2011 but failed to leave near-Earth orbit, partially burnt up in the atmosphere, and its remains fell into the Pacific Ocean. “For now, the second Phobos-Grunt is being planned within the framework of the Mars-Grunt project. Maybe we will work on it with Europe.A pilot project is under development right now.
I do not rule out that the spacecraft will be manufactured by [Russian aerospace company] NPO Lavochkin,” Zeleny said. He also revealed that the start of Russia’s automatic lunar exploration program is postponed from 2016 until 2018. “They [the timelines] have been changed from 2016 to 2018. These are Luna Globe and orbiting Luna [program],” he said, adding that there should be no further delays.“We want to implement three lunar projects this decade: Luna-25, Luna-26 and Luna-27,” he said. Zelyony said these timelines have been set in the Federal Space Program proposed by the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
Russian scientists will focus on Moon and Mars exploration and repeat the Phobos-Grunt mission in the next decade, Zeleny said earlier. “The Moon and Mars are our priority for 2016-2025,” he said.Speaking of Phobos mission he noted: “If everything goes according to our plan, the mission could be launched in 2023.” Phobos-Grunt was the first Russian-led interplanetary mission since 1996.
It was designed to become the first spacecraft to return a macroscopic sample from an extraterrestrial body since Luna 24 in 1976. Roscosmos in partnership with the European Space Agency will be carrying out two stages of the ExoMars mission in 2016 and 2018.In 2016, Roscosmos is planning to join Europe and Japan in the BepiColombo project. In 2017, it will orbit the Spektr-RG telescope and send a Russian rover, Luna-Globe, to the Moon in 2019, for the first time in years. A UV observatory is to be launched in 2020; an orbiting module and a dropship are scheduled to be sent to the Moon in 2012 and 2023, respectively. Credit: RIA Novosti, ITAR-TASS
OGLE-ing the Magellanic System: Polish Astronomers Discover Young Stellar Bridge in the Magellanic Clouds
Polish astronomers from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) have discovered a young stellar bridge, that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region up to date. “We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the Magellanic Bridge area (MBR), which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along,” the researchers write in a paper published on Oct. 1
. “The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the other, fairly isolated and located approximately midway between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island.” The Magellanic Clouds comprise of two galaxies: the Large (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud and are the closest to the Milky Way pair of interacting galaxies. The Clouds have always been of special interest to astronomers and they continue to play a significant role in our understanding of the Universe.
For the observations, the team used the 1.3 m Warsaw telescope located at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile (operated by the Carnegie Institution for Science) equipped with the 256 Megapixel 32-chip mosaic camera. The OGLE project started regular observations in 1992 as one of the first generation microlensing projects dedicated to detecting and characterizing microlensing events. During its over 20 year history OGLE gradually evolved and conducted numerous projects that contributed to many fields of modern astrophysics. The current, fourth phase of the OGLE survey (OGLE-IV) started in March 2010 and the Galactic bulge and disk, the Magellanic Clouds, and the Magellanic Bridge, including vast areas around them, are the primary observing targets for this phase.
In the paper, OGLE scientists present density maps of stellar populations in the entire Magellanic Bridge region, thanks to the unprecedented OGLE-IV coverage. The maps show, for the first time, the detailed extent of these populations, which should provide valuable input information for models of past Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds interactions. “This unique dataset allowed us to construct detailed number density maps for three key stellar populations: the young stars, and the intermediate-age and old populations, represented by the red clump and the red giant branch stars,” the researchers reveal.
The density map confirms that the majority of young stars are found in the western part of the classical Bridge, but what is more important, shows that the young population is also present in the eastern part of the classical Bridge region, which was not observed before. “This means that there is a continuous stream of young stars connecting the two galaxies,” the team concludes. Presented number density maps form a first uniform dataset on stellar populations in the area between the Magellanic Clouds, much larger than the classical Magellanic Bridge.
This is a unique database that may be used for testing models and simulations of past interaction between the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way. Data used to make these density maps are available in an electronic form from the OGLE Internet archivehttp://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl.
Four Candidate Landing Sites Considered for 2018 ExoMars Mission
Four possible landing sites are being considered for the ExoMars mission in 2018. Its rover will search for evidence of martian life, past or present. ExoMars is a joint two-mission endeavour between ESA and Russia’s Roscosmos space agency. The Trace Gas Orbiter and an entry, descent and landing demonstrator module, Schiaparelli, will be launched in January 2016, arriving at Mars nine months later. The Rover and Surface Platform will depart in May 2018, with touchdown on Mars in January 2019. The search for a suitable landing site for the second mission began in December 2013, when the science community was asked to propose candidates.
The eight proposals were considered during a workshop held by the Landing Site Selection Working Group in April. By the end of the workshop, there were four clear front-runners. Following additional review by an ESA-appointed panel, the four sites have now been formally recommended for further detailed analysis. The sites – Mawrth Vallis, Oxia Planum, Hypanis Vallis and Aram Dorsum – are all located relatively close to the equator.
“The present-day surface of Mars is a hostile place for living organisms, but primitive life may have gained a foothold when the climate was warmer and wetter, between 3.5 billion and 4 billion years ago,” says Jorge Vago, ESA’s ExoMars project scientist. “Therefore, our landing site should be in an area with ancient rocks where liquid water was once abundant. Our initial assessment clearly identified four landing sites that are best suited to the mission’s scientific goals.”
The area around Mawrth Vallis and nearby Oxia Planum contains one of the largest exposures of rocks on Mars that are older than 3.8 billion years and clay-rich, indicating that water once played a role here. Mawrth Vallis lies on the boundary between the highlands and lowlands and is one of the oldest outflow channels on Mars.
The exposed rocks at both Mawrth Vallis and Oxia Planum have varied compositions, indicating a variety of deposition and wetting environments. In addition, the material of interest has been exposed by erosion only within the last few hundred million years, meaning the rocks are still well preserved against damage from the planet’s harsh radiation and oxidation environment.
By contrast, Hypanis Vallis lies on an exhumed fluvial fan, thought to be the remnant of an ancient river delta at the end of a major valley network. Distinct layers of fine-grained sedimentary rocks provide access to material deposited about 3.45 billion years ago. Finally, the Aram Dorsum site receives its name from the eponymous channel, curving from northeast to west across the location. The sedimentary rocks around the channel are thought to be alluvial sediments deposited much like those around Earth’s River Nile.
This region experienced both sustained water activity followed by burial, providing protection from radiation and oxidation for most of Mars’ geological history, also making this a site with strong potential for finding preserved biosignatures. “While all four sites are clearly interesting scientifically, they must also allow for the operational and engineering requirements for safe landing and roving on the surface,” adds Jorge.
“Technical constraints are satisfied to different degrees in each of these locations and, although our preliminary evaluation indicates that Oxia Planum has fewer problems compared to the other sites, verification is still on going.” The next stage of analysis will include simulations to predict the probability of landing success based on the entry profile, atmospheric and terrain properties at each of the candidate sites. The aim is to complete the certification of at least one site by the second half of 2016, with a final decision on the landing site for the ExoMars 2018 rover to be taken sometime in 2017. Credit: ESA
Proton Rocket Returns to Flight with Successful Launch of a Russian Satellite into Orbit
The Proton-M carrier rocket, which lifted off from Baikonur space launch facility in Kazakhstan early on Sunday, has put the Briz-M rocket booster and the Russian relay satellite Luch in the interim orbit, the press service of the Russian Space Agency (Roscosmos) reported. The rocket lifted off as scheduled on Sept. 28, 2014, at 00:23 Moscow Time (4:23 p.m. EDT on Sept. 27). The launch vehicle is carrying a classified payload known as Olymp (“Olympus”) as well as Luch (“Beam”), which belongs to the Russian Ministry of Defense. “The Russian satellite is expected to enter the final calculated orbit at 09:26 Moscow time (on Sunday),” the press service said.
The Luch spacecraft is another satellite of the Luch Multifunctional Relay System which is being developed under the 2006-2015 Russian federal space programme. The Luch relay system is intended to provide the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS); low-orbiting space devices; boosters and upper stages with communication with ground-based facilities. The previous Luch spacecraft – Luch-5B – was successfully put in orbit on April 28 this year.
Sunday’s mission was previously scheduled to lift off at the end of May 2014 and, following the May 16 accident, it was initially postponed to July 8. On August 26, Roscosmos announced that specialists from GKNPTs Khrunichev had been installing thermal protection layers on the Briz-M stage at Site 92-50 in Baikonur, while the center’s personnel was configuring launch pad at Site 81 for the upcoming mission. The statement also said that the Luch spacecraft was developed at ISS Reshetnev.
On Sept. 4, Roscosmos reported that the launch vehicle, the upper stage, the payload fairing and the spacecraft had undergone autonomous checks and were all ready for integration. The assembly was completed by September 19. Two days later, a fully assembled vehicle was moved to a fueling station for loading the upper stage with propellant and pressurized gases. The launch vehicle was then rolled out to the launch pad No. 24 at Site 81on September 23.
Several hours before an expected liftoff, Roscosmos announced that State Commission overseeing the launch had given green light to the fueling of the vehicle with propellants. At the same time, the launch contractor removed information about the scheduled time of the launch from its web site and never made public a live broadcast of the liftoff.
The Proton-M boost carrying the Express-AM4P communication satellite burnt in dense layers of the atmosphere on May 16. The experts investigating the accident said it was caused by disintegration of a bearing assembly in the turbo pump of the third-stage engine. Credit: ITAR-TASS, russianspaceweb.com