Поехали! Russia Celebrates Cosmonautics Day
”Poyekhali! (Off We Go!)” were Yuri Gagarin’s first words as his Vostok capsule took off in the first manned orbit of the Earth. Russia celebrates Cosmonautics Day every April 12.
This holiday was instituted by the April 9, 1962 executive order of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet (Parliament) in honor of the first manned space flight. On April 12, 1961, a launch vehicle orbited the Vostok spacecraft with the first cosmonaut, Soviet citizen Yuri Gagarin, on board. After circling the Earth once, the spacecraft’s descent module landed in the USSR.
The cosmonaut ejected at an altitude of several kilometers above the ground and parachuted into a field at 10.55 am Moscow Time. He landed on the bank of the Volga River near the village of Smelovka in the Ternovsky District of the Saratov Region. The flight lasted 108 minutes, and the launch of the world’s first manned spacecraft was supervised by Sergei Korolev, Anatoly Kirillov and Leonid Voskresensky.
This history-making event paved the way for space exploration for the benefit of the entire humankind. New opportunities in space were created in 2000 when the first crew boarded the International Space Station (ISS), a joint space project involving 15 countries.
The station is tracked 24 hours a day from the Russian Federal Space Agency’s Mission Control Center in Korolev near Moscow and NASA’s Mission Control Center at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Since the start of its operation, the ISS has gradually turned into a huge laboratory in near-Earth space. In the years following Yuri Gagarin’s first space flight, over 500 people from almost 40 countries have flown in space.
In 1962, Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR Gherman Titov, Yuri Gagarin’s backup man during the first space flight, voiced an initiative to institute Cosmonautics Day in the USSR. He also suggested calling on the UN, on behalf of the Soviet Government, to institute World Cosmonautics Day.
In November 1968, delegates of the 61st General Conference of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI – World Air Sports Federation) decided to celebrate World Day of Aviation and Astronautics every April 12. The celebration of this day was confirmed by the April 30, 1969 decision of the FAI Council, made at the recommendation of the Air Sports Federation of the USSR.
In the Russian Federation, Cosmonautics Day was instituted as a memorable date by Article 1.1 of the March 13, 1995 Federal Law On the Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates in Russia.
On Cosmonautics Day, all employees of the Russian aerospace industry, including designers, scientists, engineers, workers and pilot-cosmonauts, space equipment testers, mission control center personnel, experts of the command and measuring complex, those receiving, processing and storing incoming spacecraft and orbital station data, are congratulated and honored.
On April 7, 2011, acting on the initiative of Russia, the UN General Assembly proclaimed April 12 International Day of Human Space Flight. This decision coincided with the 50th anniversary of the first step in space exploration, namely, the trailblazing flight of Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. This resolution was co-authored by over 60 UN member-countries.
The UN General Assembly voiced its deep conviction regarding the common interest of humankind in promoting the peaceful exploration and use of space that belongs to the human race, expanding the scale of this activity and exerting consistent efforts to allow all countries to use the related benefits.
Since 2001, many countries have held a Yuri’s Night event in honor of Yuri Gagarin. This event is sponsored by the Space Generation Advisory Council, the official consultant of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. Yuri’s Night is dedicated to the following two events: the first manned space flight (April 12, 1961, USSR) and the first manned space flight in line with NASA’s Space Shuttle program (April 12, 1981). In 2011, the year of the 50th anniversary of the first manned space flight, Yuri’s Night involved over 100,000 people in 75 countries. Credit: RIA Novosti
CERN and ESA Sign Cooperation Agreement
CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, and ESA, the European Space Agency, signed a cooperation agreement on 28 March at Geneva airport to foster future collaborations on research themes of common interest. Future areas may include the development and characterization of innovative materials for applications in extreme conditions and for cutting-edge scientific performances, the development of new micro-technologies to be applied in miniaturized distributed sensor systems and the development and testing of high-performance detectors for high-energy physics experiments and space payloads.
Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the State Secretary for Education, Research and Innovation of Switzerland, highlighted how the two institutions complement each other as examples of successful European collaboration and worldwide excellence in science and technology: “CERN and ESA are two examples that attest to the approach of European collaboration for global benefit.”
Geneviève Fioraso, Minister for Higher Education and Research of France, stated that, “This cooperation agreement brings concrete expression to the long shared history of two international organisations that are emblematic of the strength of European science: CERN and ESA. This joining together in the exploration of the infinite, from the infinitely large that is the focus of the sciences of the Universe to the infinitely small in high energy physics, opens up new avenues for science and technology, bringing progress and strengthening European industry.”
“CERN and ESA have common roots and share a long history of pioneering research work in their respective fields,” said CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “This new cooperation agreement will foster synergies between the expertise, know-how and facilities available in the two Organizations.”
This year is CERN’s 60th anniversary and ESA’s 50th, making the signature an opportunity to celebrate the memory of a scientist who was a founding father of both organizations: the Italian, Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989).
Amaldi had an unshakeable belief in the open nature of science and the need for international cooperation. After participating in the creation of CERN during the 1950s, he became Secretary General of the provisional organization. Then, in 1958 when CERN was firmly established, he joined forces with French physicist Pierre Auger to urge European governments to set up a European organisation for space research, based on the CERN model. Their vision led to the founding of the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO), which later became ESA.
During the ceremony, ESA Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain presented Heuer with copies of letters by Amaldi in which he lays out his concern for peace, and the role science should play in fostering it. These letters were flown aboard ESA’s Automated Transfer Vehicle 3 – a spacecraft named in Amaldi’s honour. The ceremony took place in the presence of members of Amaldi’s family, along with Research Ministers and State Secretaries from Belgium, France, Italy and Switzerland. Credit: CERN
Moon, Mars, Solar System Colonization Top Tasks of Russia’s Space Program
Russia has determined the general conceptual basis of outer space exploration and development. Top tasks of the country are to expand its presence on low earth orbits, exploration and colonization of the Moon, start of exploration of Mars and other Solar System objects. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said this in his article published by Rossiiskaya Gazeta daily on Friday. In his words, the near future goals of Russian space industry should become the formation of a market of space services and advanced achievements in exploration and development of remote space resources.
The domestic project on far space exploration would play a special role in this, Rogozin noted. Now the Russian space agency Roscosmos jointly with several ministries and in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian state-run nuclear corporation Rosatom are instructed to draft and formulate proposals on expediency of project’s implementation, he added.
“The key trends of developments within this national project will be creation of nuclear power plants and energy conversion plasma technologies, development of biotechnologies, robotic machinery and new materials,” the deputy prime minister added.
“At the same time, works are being launched to make a technical shape of a piloted spaceship on a basis of a super-heavy rocket for lunar missions and to the Mars in the future,” Rogozin added. Feasibility studies are also being done “to create powerful orbital transfer vehicles without which exploration of the Moon and Solar System planets is impossible.”
Meanwhile, a weak spot of Russian cosmonautics remains production of high-quality domestic electronics, exactly speaking, electronic component base, deputy prime minister noted. “Space-borne transponders on telecommunications satellites being created in the last few years are produced fully by foreign companies or by Russian space enterprises on a basis of foreign components,” the deputy prime minister stated. “Therefore, the military-industrial committee empowered the Federal Space Agency to assume the role of systemic integrator and actual contractor of radiation-resistance electronic component base for domestic productions,” the deputy premier added.
Rogozin also commented on the halt of NASA’s cooperation with Russia. He said that today, amid sanctions, there is an opportunity to draft a development strategy of domestic piloted space missions independently from unreliable international partners. Credit: ITAR-TASS
Divers Resume Work at Chelyabinsk Meteorite Fall Site
Work of divers has resumed on Lake Chebarkul at the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall site. The operation was suspended Tuesday because of a strong wind, frost of 15 degrees and silt in the waterThat made searching below the depth of nine meters practically impossible. Divers worked very intensively last weekend, the director-general of the Aleut service for special works, which had won the tender to raise meteorite fragments, Nikolai Murzin, told Itar-Tass on Saturday. Divers together with scientists completed mapping of anomalies on the bottom.
This Saturday, divers have begun to examine the bottom with special probes. Murzin said that this season they were to examine 12 anomalies in two zones of about 300 and 50 sq m. One of the anomalies indicates there may be a meteorite fragment weighing several tonnes, a scientist at the Geophysics Institute of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkady Ovcharenko, has told Itar-Tass.
The largest fragment raised last year weighed 570 kilogrammes. It was found near the main anomaly, the scientist said. The Chelyabinsk meteorite came into Earth’s atmosphere on February 15, 2013, at about 07:10 Moscow time, with a powerful explosion in the atmosphere at an altitude of 30-50 km, which was seen by hundreds of thousands of people in the Ural region and northern Kazakhstan. Many fragments fell onto the Chelyabinsk Region. Largest fragments fell in the area of Lake Chebarkul, 78 km west of Chelyabinsk.Credit: ITAR-TASS
Europe’s IXV Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator Ready for Final Tests
IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle), the European Space Agency’s atmospheric reentry demonstrator developed by Thales Alenia Space, has finished development, and is now completing integration at Thales Alenia Space’s clean rooms in Turin. The spacecraft will be delivered to ESA’s ESTEC center in the Netherlands, where it will undergo final testing before being shipped to the launch site at the Guiana Space Center (CSG), Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana. The IXV demonstrator features advanced aerodynamics due to its lifting body design, which also maximizes maneuverability. It is fitted with a sophisticated guidance, navigation and control system that uses automated control surfaces during the atmospheric reentry phase., plus a heat shield to withstand the searing heat of reentry.
Thales Alenia Space Italia is in charge of the IXV vehicle design, development and integration and heads a consortium of the main European industries, research centers and universities. Italy holds the leading role. The project was strongly supported by the Italian Space Agency, which also provides technical assistance to the project and contributes to both the ground segment, with the Malindi base services, and the mission control, with its own equipment placed at the disposal of the Altec Mission Control Center. This to confirm that reentry systems are of top priority in space development in Italy. The launch, using Europe’s new Vega light launcher, is scheduled for October 2014.
The IXV will separate from Vega at an altitude of 320 kilometers, then continue its ascent to 412 kilometers. It will then begin its reentry, during which experimental data will be collected by the spacecraft’s complete instrument suite. During atmospheric reentry, it will reach a speed of approximately 7.7 km/s at an altitude of 120 km, a typical profile for reentry from low Earth orbit (for example, from the space station’s orbit).
The mission will last approximately 1 hour and 40 minutes. Following the parachute descent phase, it will culminate with a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean, where the spacecraft will be recovered by a specially equipped ship. The ground segment is being developed at the same time. The Mission Control Center, developed and operated by ALTEC in Turin, will be at the heart of the entire mission.
“The design and construction of this technology demonstrator clearly establishes Thales Alenia Space as the European benchmark in space transport and reentry systems,” said Luigi Maria Quaglino, Senior Vice President for Exploration and Science at Thales Alenia Space. “It also paves the way for further developments leading to next-generation systems.” Credit: thalesgroup.com
Poland to Host Mars Rover Competition in September
If you want to see Mars rovers at work you don’t have to fly to Red Planet, you just need to catch a plane to Poland, because that’s where the rovers are going to be this September.
They’ll be battling for fame and great prizes. That’s right, the University Rover Challenge comes to Europe for the first time and the rover teams will compete in Mars-exploration themed tasks on Polish soil. “Our efforts have at last convinced Mars Society authorities to place European Rover Challenge (ERC) in Poland” Łukasz Wilczyński, CEO of Planet PR, ERC’s public relations agency, told astrowatch.net. “Years-long work of Mars Society Polska, high standard of Polish engineers and students. Robotic exploration becomes one of Polish specialities and our activities have caused the international acknowledgement.”
ERC will be organized by Mars Society Polska, in cooperation with ABM Space Education, the Austrian Space Forum, the Regional Science-Technology Centre in Chęciny and the Marshal Office of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The Challenge will be held at the Regional Science-Technology Centre in Podzamcze, from September 5th to 7th. The core of the Challenge are four practical tasks: a science task based on obtaining and analyzing samples, a “blind” navigation task, in which the team will have to guide the rover to a certain destination using just GPS coordinates and no camera input, and two engineering tasks which will require using and repairing equipment. During all of the tasks, the teams will have to control their rovers without seeing them directly. A fifth task, which is also scored and equally important for success, is a presentation before the judges during which the teams explain the way their rover project was conducted.
“The ERC is a European variation of the prestigious University Rover Challenge, organized in the USA by The Mars Society – a contest that has seen a number of successful Polish teams.” explained Adam Jarubas, the Marshall of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. “We are very happy that this year the students can compete in Poland, at our Regional Science-Technology Centre. The project fits right into our Regional Innovation Strategy.”
Poland is the country that dominated the University Rover Challenge last year when Hyperion Team (Białystok University of Technology) won the competition, and Scorpio 3 (Wrocław University of Technology) took 2nd place. Białystok University of Technology also won the URC in 2011 and finished 3rd in 2010. Three teams from Poland are already registered in the ERC. First registered was Scorpio Project from Wrocław University of Technology. Recently the organizers received applications from MS Rover Team, representing Czestochowa University of Technology and Team Impuls from Kielce. There are also applications from Egypt, India, Germany and Colombia.
The ERC 2014 will be accompanied by a Convention attended by world class space researchers, as well as a Science Picnic. “Simultaneously with the Challenge, we’ll host an European Mars Conference on the topic ‘Humans in Space’, intended for experts who share the vision of a manned flight to Mars, as well as for other professionals (e.g. members of the space industry, the medical industry, academics from other fields), and entrepreneurs. Everyone will also have a chance to see many different experiments and scientific demonstrations in the tents of the nearby Science Picnic. There’ll be something for audiences of all ages and tastes.” said Mateusz Józefowicz, Chairman of Mars Society Polska, the ERC organizers.
UK Alerted After Unidentified Object Plummets to Earth from Space
Mystery objects have been seen high in the sky above Gloucester, UK to put UFO spotters in the area on high alert. Hucclecote mum Sarah-Jane Stanley was out walking in Churchdown on Sunday.During the evening she caught sight of a mysterious object plummeting towards earth. Sarah quickly grabbed her camera to record the moment. She said: “I didn’t think anything of it and took the photo as a general sunset picture. Then my 11-year-old daughter and I realised it was moving.
“I looked through my camera lens on full zoom and it appeared to have something at the tip of it and it was clearly visible on a downward descent. The object is spinning and glowing. “I took around 15 clear photos in all, with some exactly a minute apart, and you can see how fast it is travelling by the distance it falls on each picture. “On one of the pictures, there appear to be two tails coming from whatever it is. Crazy although it sounds, it seems to be shaped like a claw and there is something glowing on it.
“I sent the larger photos to the Met Office as I wondered if it was something weather related. They came back to me and said their forecasters say it is not a weather phenomenon and looks like something entering the Earth’s atmosphere. “They suggested I contact the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, which I have and am waiting to hear back from.” The same object was spotted by Andrew Hill who took the photo from Haresfield Beacon on Sunday evening. Credit: gloucestercitizen.co.uk
UK Boosts Support for Square Kilometre Array and PLATO Mission
The UK Science Minister, David Willetts MP, today announced a total of £113 million of new funding to support UK involvement in the world’s most powerful radio telescope and a new space mission that will search for Earth-like planets around other stars. The radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), is under development in South Africa and Australia, with its headquarters at the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics in Manchester. When it begins full operations in 2025, SKA will have thousands of individual receivers with a total collecting area of one square kilometre, making it the most sensitive radio telescope yet built. SKA antennae will spread out for at least 3000 km from the ‘cores’ in Australia and South Africa, giving radio astronomers a view of the sky’s southern hemisphere in unprecedented detail.
In his speech, David Willetts pledged £88 million of investment for the construction of the SKA, boosting UK involvement in the project. The Minister also announced £25 million of investment in the Planetary Transits and Oscillations of stars(PLATO) mission, a European Space Agency space observatory that will use a suite of telescopes to search for and analyse rocky planets in orbit around other stars. After PLATO is launched in 2024, space scientists and astronomers will use it to try to find planets similar to the Earth, not just in size but with the other characteristics that could make them habitable.
Professor David Southwood, the President of the Royal Astronomical Society, welcomed the new funding: ”This is great news for astronomers and space scientists. UK researchers have been at the cutting edge of radio astronomy since Jodrell Bank was set up after the Second World War. The new investment in SKA recognises this strength. “PLATO is a mission that will help us find where our Earth and Sun sit in the universe. Do other planets and stars exist that could sustain life like that here? The observatory is a big step not just for space astronomers – it will drive the work of observatories on the ground as well.
“The UK is one of the best places in the world to do astronomy. When our scientists have the opportunity to work on inspiring projects on the ground and in space and in the process solve enormously complex engineering and scientific challenges, it helps us retain that leading position.” Credit: ras.org.uk
Robotic Exploration of Moon and Mars a Priority for Roscosmos
The head of Russia’s space agency Roscosmos said that developing technologies for robotic exploration of the moon and Mars is a priority. Oleg Ostapenko said in an interview.
hes aid to state newspaper Rossiiskaya Gazeta that the agency would boost its unmanned space probe efforts ahead of three missions to the moon. The first mission, the long-delayed Luna-25, is slated to launch in 2016 and land at the moon’s south pole.
The next two missions will include an orbiter to monitor the moon in 2018 and a polar lander with a drill to search for water ice in 2019. Subsequent missions are planned to deploy a robotic base on the moon and bring lunar soil back to Earth for analysis. Ostapenko was appointed head of Roscosmos in October amid a shakeup of the country’s space industry following a string of failures of launch vehicles and spacecraft. Fobos-Grunt, the country’s most recent interplanetary probe, was intended to return soil from the Martian moon Phobos to Earth but failed shortly after launch in 2011. Credit: RIA Novosti
Russia Begins Large-Scale Reform of Space Industry
The United Rocket and Space Corporation has been registered in Russia, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin wrote on Twitter on Thursday. “The United Rocket and Space Corporation has been registered! We are beginning a large-scale reform of the domestic space industry,” he wrote. In Desember 2013, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree establishing the United Rocket and Space Corporation (URSC) on the basis on the Research Institute of Space Instrument-making.
In line with the decree that was published on the official Internet portal of legal information, a number of federal state unitary enterprises of the space sector were to be reformed as open joint-stock companies with 100 percent of their stock owned by the federal government. These stakes minus one share in each of them were to be transferred to the authorized capital of the United Rocket and Space Corporation.
The company includes most companies and design bureaus, save for some defence companies. The corporation will consist of nine federal unitary enterprises to be turned into open joint-stock companies. The URSC’s authorized capital will also include the shares of 13 other companies.
United Rocket and Space Corporation plans to acquire a controlling interest in rocket-engine manufacturer Energia, of which the Russian government already owned a 38 percent interest as of August 2013. Credit: ITAR-TASS
ESA Selects Planet-Hunting PLATO Mission
A space-based observatory to search for planets orbiting alien stars has been selected today as ESA’s third medium-class science mission. It is planned for launch by 2024.
The PLATO – Planetary Transits and Oscillations of stars – mission was selected by ESA’s Science Programme Committee for implementation as part of its Cosmic Vision 2015–25 Programme. The mission will address two key themes of Cosmic Vision: what are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and how does the Solar System work? PLATO will monitor relatively nearby stars, searching for tiny, regular dips in brightness as their planets transit in front of them, temporarily blocking out a small fraction of the starlight.
By using 34 separate small telescopes and cameras, PLATO will search for planets around up to a million stars spread over half of the sky. It will also investigate seismic activity in the stars, enabling a precise characterisation of the host sun of each planet discovered, including its mass, radius and age. When coupled with ground-based radial velocity observations, PLATO’s measurements will allow a planet’s mass and radius to be calculated, and therefore its density, providing an indication of its composition.
The mission will identify and study thousands of exoplanetary systems, with an emphasis on discovering and characterising Earth-sized planets and super-Earths in the habitable zone of their parent star – the distance from the star where liquid surface water could exist. “PLATO, with its unique ability to hunt for Sun–Earth analogue systems, will build on the expertise accumulated with a number of European missions, including CoRot and Cheops,” says Alvaro Giménez, ESA’s Director of Science and Robotic Exploration.
“Its discoveries will help to place our own Solar System’s architecture in the context of other planetary systems. “All M3 mission candidates presented excellent opportunities for answering the major scientific questions that define our Cosmic Vision programme.” The four other mission concepts competing for the M3 launch opportunity were: EChO (the Exoplanet CHaracterisation Observatory), LOFT (the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing), MarcoPolo-R (to collect and return a sample from a near-Earth asteroid) and STE-Quest (Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence principle Space Test).
PLATO joins Solar Orbiter and Euclid, which were chosen in 2011 as ESA’s first M-class missions. Solar Orbiter will be launched in 2017 to study the Sun and solar wind from a distance of less than 50 million km, while Euclid, to be launched in 2020, will focus on dark energy, dark matter and the structure of the Universe. PLATO will be launched on a Soyuz rocket from Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou by 2024 for an initial six-year mission. It will operate from L2, a virtual point in space 1.5 million km beyond Earth as seen from the Sun. Data from ESA’s recently launched Gaia mission will help PLATO to provide precise characteristics of thousands of exoplanet systems. These systems will provide natural targets for detailed follow-up observations by future large ground- and space-based observatories. Credit: ESA
Baikonur Space Center Head Quits
The head of Russia’s Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan has quit, a spokesperson for the country’s Federal Space Agency said Tuesday. Yevgeny Anisimov stepped down from the post for personal reasons and will likely be reappointed to a position at Russia’s space launch coordination body – Center for managing ground and space infrastructure (TSENKI), which incorporates Baikonur and Yuzhny space center, spokeswoman Irina Zubareva said.
The change of job for Anisimov was linked to disagreements he has had with senior officials at the Federal Space Agency, or Roscosmos, according to a report in Russia’s Kommersant newspaper Tuesday. Anisimov was in fact summoned to Roscosmos headquarters in Moscow and pressured to sign a letter of resignation, Kommersant said, citing unnamed sources at the agency.
Anisimov had worked at Baikonur for almost 30 years, and was made head of the space center in 2010. The current head of Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, was appointed to the position last year after his predecessor was criticized for a series of failed space launches and a corruption scandal around the Glonass satellite navigation program. Credit: RIA Novosti
Rosetta’s Journey Into the Unknown
ESA’s comet-chasing Rosetta spacecraft has been woken up from 31 months of deep-space slumber. So far, the journey to the comet has taken ten years, some of which the probe has had to travel in energy-saving mode – a kind of hibernation – on account of the vast distances involved. During this period, it has had to fend for itself and survive without any assistance. Radio contact was rendered impossible because of a lack of solar energy. After course correction in May, the probe will be set to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August, enter into its orbit – which is just a few kilometres across – and accompany it as it heads towards the Sun over the following months.
This is both a pioneering achievement and a journey into the unknown. “Nobody knows exactly how large or sturdy the comet is,” said Tommy Strandberg, an engineer at Airbus Defence and Space. “What we do know is that the comet’s gravitational pull is only around a millionth of that of the Earth. Without frequent course corrections, it would probably be almost impossible to keep Rosetta in orbit.”
“Please be our eyes and ears and nose, and follow where the comet goes. Go on Rosetta – help us see our proto-genealogy.” Wrote Max Pudney, who was inspired by the successful wake-up of the comet chasing probe.
This a real journey into our unknown beginnings. As the most primitive objects in the Solar System, comets carry essential information about our origins. Their chemical compositions have not changed much since their formation, therefore reflecting that of the Solar System when it was very young and still ‘unfinished’, more than 4600 million years ago.
Rosetta will also help to discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. Comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, delivered to Earth through impacts, and perhaps played a role in the origin of life. Moreover, volatile light elements carried by comets may also have played an important role in forming Earth’s oceans and atmosphere.
“The Rosetta mission features an array of pioneering achievements, with many technologies and methods being used for the first time. It’s an unprecedented undertaking in the history of spaceflight and one that is designed to deliver new insights into the origins of life on Earth,” says a proud Gunther Lautenschläger, project manager at Airbus Defence and Space.
Barring any complications, the scientists will be able to study the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko over the weeks that follow, keeping an eye out for a suitable place for the Philae lander to put down. Up to now Philae has been along for the ride, waiting for the moment when it will land on the comet in November.
Designed with an operating life of six months, the lander will carry out tests on the mysterious matter of comets. But all that time, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will be getting closer and closer to the Sun and the rising temperatures will cause more and more matter to vaporise, forming the comet’s signature tail. Just how long Philae will be able to withstand this turbulent ride is unclear.
Airbus Defence and Space is ESA’s industrial prime contractor for this mission, and the project was run from Friedrichshafen. Astrium UK was responsible for the architectural design of the Rosetta platform, the solar panels and the complex propulsion system, while Astrium France supplied the avionics and Astrium Spain the medium gain antenna system. In total, an industrial team comprising more than 50 subcontractors from 15 countries was involved in the Rosetta mission.
Space Capsule That Will Fly Indian Astronauts
After its Mars mission, India now aims to puts humans into space. The first steps towards flying Indian astronauts into space could be taken in weeks. Its a bold stepup. The Indian astronaut capsule has been unveiled for the very first time. If all goes as per plan in the first experimental flight of India’s latest monster rocket, the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is likely to be tested as early as May or June from Sriharikota.
It could see this astronaut module being flown into space for the very first time, but in a sub-orbital flight. In its first test flight no crew or any animals are likely to be flown.
“Only re-entry technologies and flight dynamics will be tested and the capsule will be recovered 400-500 kilometers away from Port Blair in the Bay of Bengal,” Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman K Radhakrishnan told NDTV.
ISRO has been dreaming of putting an Indian into space using an Indian rocket launched from India soil. ISRO has sought funding worth Rs. 12,500 crores from the government for the program. It says once the approval comes, an Indian astronaut can be flown in a low Earth orbit in about seven years from the time the approval comes from the government.
When it happens, India’s human space capsule could be sent on a seven day mission for two-three astronauts in a low Earth orbit of 300-400 kilometers above earth.
Till date only Russia, USA and China have successfully flown astronauts into space with the latest entrant being China in 2003.
The outer skeleton of Indian human space capsule has been fabricated by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore and was handed over to ISRO which developed it. HAL says the first Crew Module will be further equipped with systems necessary for crew support, navigation, guidance and control systems by ISRO for experimentation in the forthcoming GSLV-MK3 launch.
“HAL takes pride in the India’s space programmes and our Aerospace Division has produced this Crew Module in a record time to meet the requirements of ISRO”, said Dr RK Tyagi, Chairman, HAL.
While the government has hesitated to clear a hefty bill of Rs. 12,500 crores as desired by ISRO for its human space flight program, but so that there are no delays in the development work the Indian government has already sanctioned Rs. 145 crores for the development of what it calls ‘critical technologies’. NDTV
Search for Chelyabinsk Meteor Bits to Be Over by Spring 2014
The search party looking for heavy fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteor, which still remain in Lake Chebarkul in Russia’s Chelyabinsk region, is to be completed by March 1. This is according to the CEO of the Aleut Corporation Nikolai Murzin told Itar-Tass on Thursday. Earlier, the company managed to pull from the lake the biggest, 600 kg sunken meteorite fragment. “We have already pitched our tents up on the lake’s frozen surface and started the search, which we plan to complete by March 1.
It usually takes much time to search for meteorite remains on the lake’s bottom with our custom equipment. The lake is now covered with ice and we can place the equipment steadily on a particular spot on the surface.
When the water is clear of ice, it is different, because the waves keep tossing the boat with the equipment, so the search radius is constantly altering. That is why it is better to conduct such research in winter”, he explained. The meteor, measuring about 17 meters in size, entered the Earth’s atmosphere on February 15, 2013. Most of its fragments left from the explosion that followed fell on the territory of Russia’s Chelyabinsk region.
The head of the theoretical physics department of the Chelyabinsk State University, Alexander Dudorov, recalled that the biggest fragment recovered so far weighed 654 kilograms. The chunk was recovered from the bottom of Chebarkul Lake, some 60km west of Chelyabinsk. An operation to recover fragments of the meteorite from the lakebed began in late September 2013. Credit: ITAR-TASS
ESA’s Billion-Star Surveyor Sends Test Image
ESA’s billion-star surveyor Gaia is slowly being brought into focus. This test image shows a dense cluster of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Once Gaia starts making routine measurements, it will generate truly enormous amounts of data. To maximise the key science of the mission, only small ‘cut-outs’ centred on each of the stars it detects will be sent back to Earth for analysis.
This test picture, taken as part of commissioning the mission to ‘fine tune’ the behaviour of the instruments, is one of the first proper ‘images’ to be seen from Gaia, but ironically, it will also be one of the last, as Gaia’s main scientific operational mode does not involve sending full images back to Earth. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013, and is orbiting around a virtual point in space called L2, 1.5 million kilometres from Earth.
Gaia’s goal is to create the most accurate map yet of the Milky Way. It will make precise measurements of the positions and motions of about 1% of the total population of roughly 100 billion stars in our home Galaxy to help answer questions about its origin and evolution. Repeatedly scanning the sky, Gaia will observe each of its billion stars an average of 70 times each over five years. In addition to positions and motions, Gaia will also measure key physical properties of each star, including its brightness, temperature and chemical composition.
To achieve its goal, Gaia will spin slowly, sweeping its two telescopes across the entire sky and focusing the light from their separate fields simultaneously onto a single digital camera – the largest ever flown in space, with nearly a billion pixels. But first, the telescopes must be aligned and focused, along with precise calibration of the instruments, a painstaking procedure that will take several months before Gaia is ready to enter its five-year operational phase.
As part of that process, the Gaia team have been using a test mode to download sections of data from the camera, including this image of NGC1818, a young star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The image covers an area less than 1% of the full Gaia field of view. The team is making good progress, but there is still work to be done to understand the full behaviour and performance of the instruments. While all one billion of Gaia’s target stars will have been observed during the first six months of operations, repeated observations over five years will be needed to measure their tiny movements to allow astronomers to determine their distances and motions through space.
As a result, Gaia’s final catalogue will not be released until three years after the end of the nominal five-year mission. Intermediate data releases will be made, however, and if rapidly changing objects such as supernovae are detected, alerts will be released within hours of data processing. Eventually, the Gaia data archive will exceed a million Gigabytes, equivalent to about 200 000 DVDs of data. The task of producing this colossal treasure trove of data for the scientific community lies with the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium, comprising more than 400 individuals at institutes across Europe. Credit: ESA
Arianespace Successfully Launches ABS-2 and Athena-Fidus Satellites
Arianespace opened a busy year of mission activity in 2014 with another Ariane 5 success Thursday that added key numbers to the company’s commercial launch services track record. This 250th launch performed by Arianespace lifted off from the Spaceport in French Guiana at 6:30 p.m. local time, delivering a dual-satellite payload into geostationary transfer orbit: ABS-2 for global satellite operator ABS, and Athena-Fidus for the defense/homeland security needs of France and Italy. The mission’s duration was just over 32 minutes. Chairman and CEO Stéphane Israël said the ambitious launch manifest is a challenge that Arianespace is ready to meet.
Recognizing the Spaceport’s launch teams, he noted their role in maintaining the quality, reliability and availability of the company’s Ariane 5, Soyuz and Vega launcher family in a time of increased competition. “My satisfaction is all the greater that tonight’s mission is the very symbol of Arianespace’s dual raison d’être,” he explained in post-launch comments. “Arianespace provides Europe with a guaranteed and independent access to space; while at the same time it delivers high-quality launch services to commercial satellite operators worldwide.”
Released first during Flight VA217 was the ABS-2 relay spacecraft, which had a mass at liftoff of approximately 6,330 kg. and was the first satellite for which ABS directly awarded the launch contract – selecting Arianespace. As a result, Arianespace continued its support of new and developing communications market entrants, with more than 80 percent of satellite telecommunications operators selecting the company for their first launch milestones – placing the emphasis on quality, reliability and availability.
ABS-2 was produced by SSL (Space Systems/Loral) and will deliver optimized telecommunications, direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting, multimedia, and data transmission services for Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Its operational geostationary orbital slot will be at 75° East. ABS-2 is the 43rd satellite built by Space Systems/Loral to be launched by Arianespace.
Deployed at the conclusion of Flight VA217 was the Athena-Fidus payload – the 50th satellite launched by Arianespace for European defense purposes. Thales Alenia Space built the 3,080-kg.-category spacecraft as prime contractor to customer Telespazio, working on behalf of the French CNES and Italian ASI space agencies, as well as the French DGA and Italian Segredifesa defense ministry organizations. Athena-Fidus is to deliver telecommunications services to both armed forces and homeland security units in France and Italy, operated from a geostationary orbit position of 38° East.
It is the 130th payload built by Thales Alenia Space and launched by Arianespace. In orbiting Athena-Fidus, Arianespace opened a key year at the service of European institutions. Included in the company’s planned 2014 mission manifest are flights for the European Commission’s Galileo and Copernicus flagship programs, along with launches with the European Space Agency’s final Automated Transfer Vehicle and the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) atmospheric reentry demonstrator.
The launch was the 216th flight of an Ariane-series vehicle. It marked the 72nd Ariane 5 mission overall, and the 58th consecutive success for Arianespace’s workhorse heavy-lift vehicle. The next Arianespace mission is planned for March 7, using another Ariane 5 to orbit the ASTRA 5B and Amazonas 4A relay satellites. Amazonas 4A – built by Orbital Sciences Corporation for Hispasat – arrived in French Guiana this week aboard a cargo jetliner. Credit: arianespace.com
Meteorite May Have Landed in Finland
Separate fireball observations early Sunday morning have caused some to wonder whether a meteorite may have landed in Finland. The Ursa Astronomical Association says a meteorite hasn’t been recovered in Finland for decades. Ursa’s Marko Pekkola says that as of yet, there is no certainty whether the flash was the result of a fireball, but the presumption is strong. “We only see two or three fireballs that bright each year. Finland hasn’t collected a meteorite that has fallen to the Earth in over 40 years, so it would be fantastically great to find one,” he says.
A fireball is formed when an object falls to the Earth from space, for example, when a stone the size of a fist reaches the Earth’s atmosphere. The flash on Sunday morning was captured by two different fireball cameras, one in Helsinki and the other in Siuntio. The flash could also have been caused by cloud lightning, but the people at Ursa says it is doubtful because cloud lightning does not usually appear as widely as the light phenomenon observed on Sunday.
Observations made in Lohja saw the fireball even more distinctly, as the weather was clearer there. No meteorite search parties have been organised, however. “A very rough preliminary model suggests a trajectory towards the Porvoo or Sipoo archipelago, but our indications are really so obscure that we can’t rely on them to find it,” says Pekkola.
Pekkola says Finland is a difficult country for finding fallen meteorites. “We have broad areas that are virtually uninhabited and people aren’t spending extended periods out and about in nature anymore. This, plus a difficult terrain of marshes, lakes, forests and lots of undergrowth, means that things are very hard to find.” And even if someone found the meteorite, it is not entirely clear if he or she could keep it. “The Museum of Natural History would probably offer a finder’s fee, but there’s no saying if you get to keep a meteorite if you find one,” says Pekkola. Credit: yle.fi
Russia Successfully Launches Progress Resupply Spacecraft to ISS
The ISS Progress 54 resupply spacecraft, loaded with 2.8 tons of cargo, launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. EST Wednesday (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) to begin a 6-hour, 4-orbit trek to the International Space Station. At the time of launch of Progress 54 atop its Soyuz rocket, the station was orbiting 262 statute miles over far western Kazakhstan near the border with Russia. Once the Progress reached its preliminary orbit about nine minutes after launch, it was less than 1,750 miles behind the complex.
A series of thruster firings by the Russian space freighter during the next several hours will adjust the orbit to put the Progress on track for its rendezvous with the station and an automated docking to the Earth-facing port of the Pirs docking compartment at 5:25 p.m. NASA Television coverage of the docking begins at 4:45 p.m.
Aboard the station, Commander Oleg Kotov and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin will use the Telerobotically Operated Rendezvous Unit, or TORU, to monitor the approach and docking of Progress 54. The crew can use TORU to remotely guide the cargo craft to its docking port in the event that its Kurs automated rendezvous system experiences a problem. The new Progress is loaded with 1,764 pounds of propellant, 110 pounds of oxygen, 926 pounds of water and 2,897 pounds of spare parts, experiment hardware and other supplies for the Expedition 38 crew. The crew will open the hatch to Progress Thursday morning to begin unloading the cargo. Progress 54 is slated to spend about two months docked to the complex before departing to make way for ISS Progress 55.
The ISS Progress 52 cargo craft, which undocked from Pirs on Monday, is in the midst of several days of tests to study the thermal effects of space on its attitude control system before it is ultimately de-orbited Feb. 11 for a fiery demise over the Pacific. While they await the arrival of Progress 54, the astronauts and cosmonauts of the Expedition 38 crew will focus on a variety of science and maintenance tasks. The launch, televised live, was the first of over three dozen scheduled for the Russian space program this year.
Progress is one of five unmanned vehicles to have visited the station, along with the Japanese HTV, European ATV and American Cygnus and Dragon spacecraft. Progress freighters have been launched more than 130 times since their debut in 1972 with only one failure, including over 50 missions to the ISS. Credit: NASA, RIA Novosti
ISRO Unveils Space Capsule That Will Fly Indian Astronauts
After its Mars mission, India now aims to puts humans into space. The first steps towards flying Indian astronauts into space could be taken in weeks. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) has handed over the first “Crew Module Structural Assembly” for the “Human Spaceflight Program” to Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in Bangalore, recently. If all goes as per plan in the first experimental flight of India’s latest monster rocket, the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is likely to be tested as early as May or June from Sriharikota. It could see this astronaut module being flown into space for the very first time, but in a sub-orbital flight. In its first test flight no crew or any animals are likely to be flown.
“Only re-entry technologies and flight dynamics will be tested and the capsule will be recovered 400-500 kilometers away from Port Blair in the Bay of Bengal,” ISRO chairman K Radhakrishnan told NDTV. ISRO has been dreaming of putting an Indian into space using an Indian rocket launched from India soil. ISRO has sought funding worth Rs. 12,500 crores from the government for the program. It says once the approval comes, an Indian astronaut can be flown in a low Earth orbit in about seven years from the time the approval comes from the government.
When it happens, India’s human space capsule could be sent on a seven day mission for two-three astronauts in a low Earth orbit of 300-400 kilometers above earth.Till date only Russia, USA and China have successfully flown astronauts into space with the latest entrant being China in 2003. The outer skeleton of Indian human space capsule has been fabricated by HAL and was handed over to ISRO which developed it. HAL says the first Crew Module will be further equipped with systems necessary for crew support, navigation, guidance and control systems by ISRO for experimentation in the forthcoming GSLV-MK3 launch.
“HAL takes pride in the India’s space programmes and our Aerospace Division has produced this Crew Module in a record time to meet the requirements of ISRO”, said Dr RK Tyagi, Chairman, HAL. Earlier also HAL has contributed in the India’s space programmes such as “ISRO’s Mars Mission” by providing Satellite Structure, Propellant Tankages and supplied thirteen types of riveted structural assemblies, seven types of welded propellant tankages which include the cryogenic liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks and cryogenic stage structures for GSLV D5. While the government has hesitated to clear a hefty bill of Rs. 12,500 crores as desired by ISRO for its human space flight program, but so that there are no delays in the development work the Indian government has already sanctioned Rs. 145 crores for the development of what it calls ‘critical technologies’. Credit: hal-india.com, ndtv.com
European Astronomers Discover New Comet
A team of European astronomers has found a previously unknown comet, detected as a tiny blob of light orbiting our Sun deep in the Solar System. Europe’s Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey team has been credited with discovering comet P/2014 C1, named ‘TOTAS’ in recognition of the teamwork involved in the find. The comet was unexpectedly discovered on 1 February during a routine set of observations using the 1 m-diameter telescope at ESA’s Optical Ground Station, Tenerife, Spain.
The confirmation was announced by the International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center, the international clearing house for all such discoveries, on 4 February, after eight other observatories confirmed the sighting. The tiny object is extremely faint, and its orbit was determined to lie between Jupiter and Mars – it will not come close to Earth.
“All comets are interesting especially as they are thought to have played a role in bringing water to Earth in the distant past,” says Detlef Koschny, responsible for near-Earth object (NEO) activities at ESA’s Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme office. “Later this year, Rosetta will meet up with another comet, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, and study its nucleus and surrounding gas and dust, so it’s especially fitting that a European team has found a new comet this year.”
This latest discovery was, in fact, made by software, which compares successive images to find ‘movers’ – objects that move against the star field background. The find was confirmed by Rafal Reszelewski, working as part of the team to verify possible new objects automatically flagged by the software. Since 2010, the TOTAS team has been working in collaboration with ESA’s SSA office to conduct periodic sky surveys to find and confirm asteroids and other NEOs that orbit close to Earth. In 2011, it found asteroid 2011 SF108, which does orbit much closer to Earth. Credit: ESA
ExoMars Spacecraft to Go on Martian Mission in January 2016
A spacecraft built for the Russian-European ExoMars project will begin its voyage to Mars in January 2016, Director of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Lev Zelyony told Interfax-AVN. “In all, there will be four stages in this project. An orbiter designed by the European Space Agency will be launched with a Russian Proton-M LV and a Briz-M upper stage in the period from January 7 to January 27, 2016.
The spacecraft will arrive in the Martian orbit in October 2016. It will be carrying a number of our and European instruments and a small craft, which will be airdropped to the planet,” the scientist said. The vehicle will spend two weeks on the planet’s surface.The second stage of the mission is scheduled for 2018. “We will contribute a Proton-M launch vehicle, a Briz-M upper stage and a landing platform, which will bring a rover to Mars. The rover will be carrying a Russian payload, too,” Zelyony said. The orbiter launched in 2016 will be transmitting data from the rover to the Earth. “Initially, the orbiter will be doing measurements and after the rover and the landing platform touch down in 2018 some of the orbiter’s resources will be used to transmit their data,” he added.Credit: interfax.com
Russian Progress M-20M Spacecraft Burns Up Over Pacific
A Russian Progress-M spacecraft burned up over the Pacific Ocean Tuesday evening in a planned descent following a successful mission to the International Space Station. Remnants of the craft that were not destroyed during the controlled re-entry crashed into an isolated area of the Pacific, a spokesman for Russia’s Mission Control said. The Progress M-20M delivered over two metric tons of cargo to the station in July. It undocked early last week to free up a port for another Progress space freighter, which arrived last Wednesday.
Scientific equipment on board the departing craft continued to make measurements over the past week as part of an experiment to characterize the station’s gravitational environment. Data about vibrations aboard the ISS during events such as spacewalks and the undocking of spacecraft could help in the analysis of other ongoing experiments aboard the ISS. The unmanned Progress cargo spacecraft is not designed to survive reentry into Earth’s atmosphere. It has flown over 130 missions with just one failure since its debut in 1978 and has delivered supplies to four space stations – Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir and the ISS.Credit: RIA Novosti
ESA Astronaut Ready to Become the First Italian Woman in Space
The “Futura” mission ISS Expedition 42/43, to which the Air Force pilot Captain Samantha Cristoforetti will be taking part – the seventh Italian astronaut up till now.
She’s also the first Italian woman that will go to space – was officially unveiled January 22 at Palazzo Chigi in Rome during a crowded press conference. “It is a great joy for me to be here today, and it will be a great honour to be part of this mission to the ISS” Cristoforetti said.
“I feel very calm, in my everyday life I live the preparation with commitment but also with joy, knowing that I have the privilege of being part of an extraordinary group that has extraordinary opportunities”. She will board a Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft at the end of November, and will fly to the ISS from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Cristoforetti was selected as an ESA astronaut in May 2009. She joined ESA in September 2009 and completed basic astronaut training in November 2010. She was assigned to this year’s mission in July 2012.
The logo of the mission was officially unveiled during the press conference as the winner of the ‘contest’ organized by Italian Space Agency (ASI) “Disegna la Missione di Samantha Cristoforetti” ["Draw the Mission of Samantha Cristoforetti"]. It represents – as seen to the left – a ‘stylized’ ISS and its imaginary orbit around the Earth, with a rising sun and a canopy of stars in the background. This was created by Valerio Papeti, a young graduated in the Academy of Fine Arts in Turin.
The logo has been chosen from competition entries asking for a design that captured the elements of her mission: research, discovery, science, technology, exploration, wonder, adventure, travel, excellence, teamwork, humanity, enthusiasm, dreams and nutrition. “I derive a strong sense of purpose from being part of the space community, as we build a future in space for we human beings.
The name Futura for me is about our collective journey towards that future.” Cristoforetti said. “The logo beautifully represents that momentum, that voyage of discovery. As a European of Italian nationality, I am especially proud of Europe’s and Italy’s contribution to this endeavour and I am happy to see Europe’s outline and the Italian colours in the design.” Cristoforetti is now training for her mission on Station systems, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, robotics and spacewalks. During the six months she stays on the space laboratory she will run new international experiments and continue the research of her astronaut colleagues.
The ASI, the only national space agency in Europe to have direct access to the resources of the ISS, has selected and is developing eight Italian scientific research and technological demonstration projects for the “Futura” mission, which will be carried out by our astronaut in her six months aboard the ISS.
Five projects will be devoted to the study of various aspects of human physiology under conditions of weightlessness, two will perform biological analysis on cell samples taken in microgravity; a demonstrator will be experimented on board the ISS for an automated manufacturing process for the realization of 3D objects in zero gravity (3D printing). The projects have been developed by universities, research centres, companies and Italian SMEs, and selected by the ASI with the National Human Spaceflight Call for Proposals for the utilization of the ISS. Credit: ESA, ASI
Russian Officials Discuss the Future of Space Exploration
The human path to Mars should lay through consistent development of space technologies on asteroids and on the Moon. This view expressed the President of RSC Energia Vitaly Lopota and head of Lavochkin Association Viktor Khartov at the Korolyov Readings in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on Tuesday. According to Lopota, in the nearest future, Mars would be a priority in terms of colonization and research.
The road map of Mars exploration contemplates two scenarios: to reach it through an asteroid and then through the Moon, or vice versa. “The wise way is to create technology designed for Mars, to use the Moon for testing the required technologies, and the asteroids are a challenge that we should always be able to meet in case of threat,” the expert noted.
Lavochkin is in charge of the landing module of the Russian-European ExoMars project, Khartov said. “We are creating a two-tonne landing module for this mission. It will transport a 3,000-kilogram European rover to the surface of Mars,” he said. The mission starts in 2018, Khartov noted. Khartov believes that first people should learn how to bring soil from Mars and its satellite Phobos.
According to the plan announced by the scientist, the Boomerang project should feature the following pattern of bringing soil from Phobos: a space vehicle delivers on the satellite of Mars a lander that takes soil samples and “shoots upwards a capsule with soil”, which is picked up by another space vehicle near Phobos that sends it to Earth.
The scientist added that this scheme is almost the only possible one to solve the issue of bringing Martial soil to Earth. The implementation of the Boomerang project is planned for approximately 2020. This project is the first stage of a more large-scale plan dubbed Expedition M, which is scheduled for launch in 2024. It is intended to deliver on Mars a fly-back rocket that would put into orbit a capsule with soil to be picked up by another space vehicle and brought to Earth. Khartov also recalled that up from 2016, Russia would start its Moon program that should result in bringing Moon soil to Earth.
World’s biggest rocket
Russia’s Roscosmos space agency is to seek government approval to build the world’s largest rocket, its head said Tuesday. “I think that in the near future, within a month, we will make our suggestions to the Military-Industrial Commission,” Oleg Ostapenko said. Ostapenko, who was appointed head of the agency in October, said the planned launcher would be able to lift 80 metric tons into low Earth orbit.
It could also be upgraded to launch as much as 160 tons, which would be the heaviest payload every lifted by a single rocket into space. The current record holder, NASA’s Saturn V rocket that was used to launch Apollo astronauts on their journey to the moon, had a maximum capability of 120 metric tons. Roscosmos formed a working group last year to evaluate proposals for a heavy-lift rocket, including the revival of the Energia launcher, the highest payload rocket ever built in the country.
The Energia, developed in the Soviet Union and launched twice, was cancelled during the economic crisis twenty years ago. Experts consider such large rockets to be necessary for manned Mars or deep space missions, although they are likely to be uneconomical for commercial payloads that can be launched on existing rockets. NASA is currently building a new super-heavy rocket, the Space Launch System, that will also come in two variants capable of lifting 70 and 130 tons into orbit. The first test flight of the smaller version is scheduled for 2017.
Russia’s largest existing rocket, the Proton, can launch payloads of up to 20 tons. The modular Angara rocket is also under development and comes in several versions, the largest of which is planned to send up to 40 tons into orbit. China is reportedly considering construction of its own super-heavy rocket, the Long March 9, for a manned lunar mission. Roscosmos is also working with aerospace enterprises on the creation of radar spacecraft, which the Russian group currently does not have, Ostapenko said.
“Radar location is a very important and promising area. Unfortunately, we do not have such capabilities in our orbital spacecraft group. we are now actively contacting a number of enterprises to work on this issue,” he said. The negotiations between the Roscosmos administration and representatives of the industry took place several days ago, he said. However, Ostapenko did not name the enterprises with which negotiations are being held on this issue.
Russia could go it alone after ISS closes
According to Lopota, the Russian segment of the International Space Station could live on as a separate facility after the project’s conclusion. “By the mid-2020s our American colleagues will have exhausted their technical resources and Russia will have a unique opportunity to use the segment, still to be completed, as an orbiting international port,” Lopota said. He added that the long-delayed Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module would only be completed in 2018-2020.
Russian officials have in the past suggested their segment could be detached and operated independently of the ISS as the United States had previously considered leaving the project as early as 2016. But earlier this month US President Barack Obama vowed to keep the American segment operational until 2024. Lopota said the Russian segment could still be detached at that time, when its first modules will already be more than 20 years old, to serve as a transit point for international missions headed deeper into space.
As to the Venus mission on which Lavochkin is working, Khartov said, “the Venera-D spacecraft will be launched after 2020″. A Proton-M launch vehicle will propel the spacecraft to the skies.
Temperatures are high, approximately 500 degrees Celsius, on the surface of Venus, which means “the spacecraft will have to withstand the planetary surface conditions for about 24 hours,” he said. Venera-D’s prime purpose is to make radar remote-sensing observations around the planet Venus in a manner similar to that of the Venera 15 and Venera 16 probes in the 1980s or the U.S. Magellan in the 1990s, but with the use of more powerful radar. The spacecraft is also intended to map future landing sites. Credit: interfax.com, ITAR-TASS, RIA Novosti
Telescope Array Could Revolutionize African Astronomy.
Scientists are predicting an astronomy renaissance on the African continent in coming years, thanks in part to a giant radio telescope array being built there.
But the road to cosmic cachet is not an easy one, and African science advocates are scrambling to take full advantage of the opportunities coming their way. “Astronomy really is about to explode across the African continent,” astronomer Kartik Sheth of the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory said January 9 at the 223rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society near Washington DC The challenge, he said, is to make sure African astronomers benefit from the surge of facilities being built in their midst. “We want to build long-term sustainable collaborations that are mutually beneficial to the US and to Africa. We don’t want brain and data drain from Africa to the US.”
The biggest game-changer on the continent will be the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), the world’s largest network of radio telescopes designed to survey the sky faster than any instrument before it. Roughly 3,000 radio dishes — having a combined total surface equal to a light-collecting area of about a square kilometer — will be spread across vast distances to offer a resolution akin to a single dish encompassing the whole span. “SKA will be the premier project of the coming decades, completely revolutionizing radio astronomy,” said Ted Williams, director of the South African Astronomical Observatory. “The largest part of the SKA will be sited in Africa, and it’s continent-wide, extending across eight African countries:” Botswana, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia. A smaller portion of the project will be built in Australia.
South Africa, headquarters for the African contingent of the project, mounted a competitive campaign to bring the observatory to Africa, and the news in 2012 that its bid had won the lion’s share of the project was unexpected to many. “We kind of took them by surprise but we did our homework very well,” says Takalani Nemaungani, an engineer at South Africa’s Department of Science and Technology who led his country’s SKA lobbying campaign. Nemaungani sold the SKA committee on South Africa’s clear skies (necessary for precision radio astronomy), the promised political support of its president and cabinet — who have passed legislation to strictly limit the amount of radio noise in the remote site area — and its expertise in engineering and infrastructure. Construction of the $1.6-billion observatory is due to begin in 2016 and will be added to in phases, with the first observations to take place in 2019 and full operation by 2024.
South Africa’s apartheid past posed a special challenge. Until the race-separation policy ended in 1994 the country faced local unrest and international opprobrium. Trade sanctions imposed on South Africa by other countries, especially the US, hampered the nation’s economy but resulted in some unintended consequences in boosting homegrown technologies. “Because of the embargoes and sanctions here, there were technologies and expertise we had to build for ourselves to sustain the country,” Nemaungani says. For example, the international oil embargo against South Africa enacted in 1987 forced the nation to become the world leader in technology to convert coal to oil.
Still, Africa’s goal of astronomical ascendancy faces serious challenges, including many African countries’ high levels of unemployment, poverty, poor education and lack of investment in science. According the UNESCO 2010 Science Report, scientific development in sub-Saharan Africa faces “poor infrastructure development, a small pool of researchers and minimal scientific output. The continent has failed to invest in science, technology and innovation (STI) as drivers of economic growth and long-term sustainable development.”
Proponents of Africa’s new age of astronomy want to change all that. “SKA is helping us to change perspectives on Africa as a destination for high-tech opportunities and industry,” Nemaungani says. “We’re using astronomy as a gateway science to interest young kids to study math and science. That’s where a big project like SKA can make an impact.”
Virtually everywhere in South Africa people have heard about the SKA, although they might not know much about it, Williams said. Leaders are particularly working to help South Africa’s black population reap the new scientific opportunities, which have traditionally gone to the nation’s privileged whites. “Several generations of Africans were told, ‘You can’t do this,’” he told Scientific American. “The message we’re trying to send is, ‘Yes, you can.’”
And the SKA is just one of numerous astronomical projects on the continent. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) gamma-ray observatory opened in 2002 in Namibia, new telescopes are being built in Burkina Faso and Ethiopia, and the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) was inaugurated in South Africa in 2005 and came fully online in 2011.
Ted Williams was a Rutgers University astronomer in 1998 when he first came to South Africa to investigate the possibility of building SALT. His wife insisted on coming on the trip because it was a “once-in-a-lifetime” opportunity to visit. It was not long, though, before the two moved to Cape Town. In his time there Williams has seen significant technological, scientific and social advancement. “When we started on SALT, nobody could have conceived that a project like SKA would go to South Africa,” Williams says. “So much has changed.” Source: Nature
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Skywatchers are invited to join experts on Saturday in tracking two brightening comets, ISON and Lovejoy, a spokesperson from the Taipei
Skywatchers are invited to join experts on Saturday in tracking two brightening comets, ISON and Lovejoy, a spokesperson from the Taipei