Japanese Space Tourist Training for Spot on the International Space Station
A Japanese entrepreneur plans to train as a cosmonaut in Russia for a possible mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Space tourist Satoshi Takamatsu will fly in the event that another tourist cannot make it: British singer Sarah Brightman. Space Adventures, Ltd., the company that provides human space missions to the world marketplace, announced that Takamatsu will begin training as an ISS crew member candidate for a flight on a Soyuz TMA spacecraft.
After successful completion of the program, he will be certified as a ‘fully-trained spaceflight participant cosmonaut’ and will be the first Japanese private astronaut qualified to visit the Space Station. “I am delighted to be able to take advantage of this opportunity to train as a cosmonaut. I am excited to prepare myself alongside professionals and to get their unique insight as to what it takes to train for a flight to space. I started dreaming of launching to space when I was 6 years-old when I watched the Apollo 11 lunar landing on TV. So this really is the fulfillment of a lifelong dream,” said Takamatsu.
Takamatsu is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Space Films and Space Travel. Space Films is a production company that provides end-to-end assistance for all commercial space film projects, with assistance from the Russian, U.S. and Japanese space agencies. Space Travel is the first Japanese space travel agency.He earlier worked for Dentsu Inc., Japan’s biggest advertising agency, where he devised advertising for beverages and noodles featuring the ISS.
Takamatsu has already cleared the Russian Federal Space Agency’s (Roscosmos) medical tests and preliminary training program, will start training later this month, mainly at Star City, a town north of Moscow which serves Russia’s space industry. He will also receive training at NASA. He also plans to describe his training for people following his journey online.
“Through his spaceflight training, Satoshi will experience first-hand how our clients prepare to fly to space on the Soyuz spacecraft and for life onboard the International Space Station. And he will become a member of an official space mission crew, a distinction that less than 1,000 people have ever had,” said Tom Shelley, president of Space Adventures. Space Adventures became world renowned in 2001 with the launch of client Dennis Tito, the world’s first privately-funded spaceflight participant. Since then, the company has launched seven other missions to the ISS. Space Adventures’ clients have traveled over 36 million miles in space.
“Satoshi is a successful Japanese advertising executive and life-long entrepreneur. He also has a long-held passion for space & space exploration and this is reflected in some of his professional work, most notably as the first director of a TV commercial shot in space. Satoshi is a creative spirit; I very much look forward to hearing his interpretation of this incredible journey that he’s about to embark on,” Shelley said.
Space Adventures, the company that organized the flights for the world’s first private space explorers, is headquartered in the Washington, D.C. metro area, with an office in Moscow. It offers a variety of programs such as the availability today for spaceflight missions to the International Space Station and around the Moon, cosmonaut training, spaceflight qualification programs and reservations on future suborbital spacecraft. The company’s orbital spaceflight clients include Dennis Tito, Mark Shuttleworth, Greg Olsen, Anousheh Ansari, Charles Simonyi, Richard Garriott and Guy Laliberté. Credit: spaceadventures.com, japantimes.co.jp
Japan Approves New Space Policy
Japan has approved a new space development policy Friday that focuses less on science and more on security and how to make piles of cash. Under the 10-year Basic Plan on Space Policy, the administration said it will improve cooperation with the United States in the area of security while aiming to boost the value of Japan’s space industry to ¥5 trillion ($8.4 bn) over the next decade. “We have been able to make a long-term, specific plan that factors in the (nation’s) new security policy,” Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at a meeting Friday on space strategy. The move comes amid mounting public concern over the use of space technologies for defense.
Of 720 public comments submitted last month on the draft of the policy, 68 people were opposed to using space for military purposes and another 17 specifically said Japan should restrict its use of space to non-military purposes. “The use of outer space is indispensable to maintaining security today,” the policy document states. “We will engage in space development to directly utilize it for our nation’s diplomatic and security policies, as well as for the Self-Defense Forces.”
The new policy calls for reducing the danger of space debris by establish debris monitoring systems that share data with the U.S. Japan also plans to launch a network of seven “quasi-zenith satellites” over the next 10 years to complement America’s GPS system. In fiscal 2015, one of Japan’s primary goals will be to perfect the launch capability of the Epsilon solid-fuel rocket. In fiscal 2020, the government aims to develop the first replacement for its mainstay HII-A rocket.
Regarding space exploration, Japan plans to launch three midsize satellites and five small satellites. Regarding the U.S. proposal to extend the life span of the International Space Station to 2024, Japan is to make a decision by the end of fiscal 2016, the policy document states. Japan had long limited its use of space to peaceful purposes based on a Diet resolution passed in 1969. Japan has been wary on using space for defensive purposes, even though the government lifted the ban on that in 2008. Credit: japantimes.co.jp
Kiran Kumar Appointed New ISRO Chief
Director of Ahmedabad based Satellite Applications Centre Alur Seelin Kiran Kumar has been appointed chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for the next three years. “The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet approved the appointment of Kumar as Secretary, Department of Space and Chairman, Space Commission on re-employment on contract basis, for a tenure of three years from the date of assumption of charge of the post,” said the Department of Personnel and Training.
Kumar will succeed K S Radhakrishnan, who retired on Dec. 31 after steering the space agency for a successful Mars mission and launch of GSLV rockets. Shailesh Nayak, secretary in the Ministry of Earth Sciences was given the temporary charge of ISRO chairman for a month.
Kumar joined ISRO in 1975 after completing his Physics (Honours) Degree, Master in Electronics from Bangalore University and thereafter, M. Tech Degree in Physical Engineering from Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore). He held several techno-managerial positions at the Space Application Centre and contributed extensively for development of Electro-optical Imaging Camera systems for all Indian Earth Observation Satellites that brought India to the forefront in remote sensing technology globally.
Kumar was the principal investigator of Terrain mapping camera and Hyper spectral camera payloads that flew in Chandrayaan-1 mission. The data from these two payloads provided the lion’s share of the Lunar Atlases that ISRO produced.
He went on to become the Associate Director of Space Applications Centre in 2009 and later its Director in 2012. It is during this period – he steered the design and development of several break through areas in ISRO like – the space-borne synthetic aperture radar for India’s first microwave imaging satellite RISAT-1, multi-band communication transponder system for GSAT-7 communication satellite for strategic applications, navigation payloads for Indian National Regional Navigation System.
For the Mars Orbiter Mission, he has been playing a pivotal role in developing the scientific instruments apart from guiding the entire mission operations as the Chief of Spacecraft Authorization Board. He is a fellow of National Academy of Engineers and corresponding member of International Academy of Astronautics. Credit: deccanherald.com
ESA Ready to Launch Its Own Spaceplane
On its first launch of the year, Europe’s Vega rocket will loft ESA’s unmanned spaceplane to test reentry technologies for future vehicles. The launch campaign has resumed, aiming for a liftoff on 11 February from Kourou, French Guiana to release ESA’s Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle, IXV, into a suborbital trajectory. This mission will provide vital flight data for Europe to forge ahead in developing systems and advanced technologies for transportation systems of the future.
On 23 October, the decision to postpone the launch was taken by the launch authorities as a result of safety concerns that required additional analysis. Finding an alternative trajectory solved the issue. “Launch preparations have resumed,” said Jose-Maria Gallego Sanz, ESA’s IXV launch campaign manager. “Batteries that were removed from IXV are being taken from cold storage, charged and reinstalled. No additional tests are needed – IXV is ready to fly.”
The mission will last 100 minutes from liftoff to splashdown. Weighing around two tonnes and the size of a car, IXV is a snug fit inside Vega’s protective fairing. The two-piece shell will open to release the spaceplane at an altitude of 320 km. IXV will coast to up to 420 km and then begin its reentry phase, recording a vast amount of data from a large number of conventional and advanced sensors.
The entry speed of 7.5 km/s at an altitude of 120 km will create the same conditions as those for a vehicle returning from low orbit. IXV will glide through the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds to test new European reentry technologies before parachutes deploy to slow the descent for a safe splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.
The Nos Aries recovery vessel is now stationed in Flamenco Island Anchorage in Panama. Over the last month, the crew have been testing the equipment for hoisting IXV out of the water. ESA’s recovery team will board on 25 January for the ship to set sail on the last leg of its journey to the recovery spot.Credit: ESA
Russian Cosmonaut Boris Morukov Dies
Deputy director of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Biomedical Problems, cosmonaut Boris Morukov, a physician who visited the International Space Station (ISS) and led a 520-day simulated Mars mission, suddenly died on Jan. 1. He was 64. “Boris Vladimirovich (patronymic) was a distinguished experimentalist in the field of staging and conducting unique model experiments having a huge international significance,” the institute said. It did not specify what caused the scientist’s death.
Morukov led the experiment in 2007-2011 to simulate a manned flight to Mars, entitled Mars-500. In September 2000, he carried out a flight to ISS on board the US space shuttle Atlantis (as an STS-106 mission specialist), and was deputy director of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Biomedical Problems since December 2006.
One of only two flown Russian cosmonauts to never fly on a Russian spacecraft, Morukov logged a total of 11 days, 19 hours and 10 minutes in space. He remained an active cosmonaut for seven years after returning to Earth, retiring from the corps in November 2007.
The scientist was responsible for leading medical, biological, microbiological and radiobiological research on board manned spacecraft, including coordination of scientific work with international partners. “[Morukov] was well known to many of us in the space life sciences community for the breadth of his knowledge and his enthusiasm for understanding the effects of space on human physiology,” wrote John Charles, chief of NASA’s international science office in its human research program, in a remembrance he posted to Facebook. Credit: TASS, collectspace.com
Germany Wraps Up a Successful Year in Spaceflight
2014 was a very successful and eventful year for the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Germany was active in the field of human spaceflight as the country’s astronaut Alexander Gerst spent six months aboard the International Space Station and DLR played the lead role in ESA’s Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. But that’s not all, for over 10 years now, using the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) camera on board Mars Express spacecraft, German scientists have been photographing and mapping Mars.
Gerst was the first German in space since 2008 and, after Thomas Reiter (2006), the second to live and work almost six months on board the ISS. In addition to routine scientific work, the youngest German astronaut, the 11th in total, performed maintenance and was responsible for supervising the arrival of supply vehicles, among them the final European space freighter, ATV-5 Georges Lemaître. Among other things, ATV-5 carried the German experiments EML, MagVector, WiseNet and SpaceTex, which Gerst unpacked and installed in the European research laboratory, Columbus.
“I am particularly pleased about the roughly 100 experiments that Alex Gerst took part in, 25 of which originated from Germany. His flight has shown that in human spaceflight and especially its utilization, Germany plays a leading role worldwide,” said Johann-Dietrich Wörner, Chairman of the DLR Executive Board, after Gerst returned to Earth on Nov. 10.
DLR played a major role in building the Rosetta’s Philae lander and runs the lander control center which prepared and oversaw the difficult task of landing on the comet on Nov. 12. Rosetta spacecraft is operated by teams at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany. DLR has also developed the ROLIS (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) camera to obtain high-resolution images during descent and stereo panoramic images of areas sampled by other instruments.
Even NASA Administrator Charles Bolden acknowledged Germany’s role in leading the first ever comet landing mission. “Congratulations! I watched last night’s dramatic landing of Philae with great excitement and pride for our German partners. I know that DLR is leading the landing effort, as well as providing ROLIS, which took such amazing descent images of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko as Philae approached the surface,” Bolden said. “Germany’s leadership in the landing mission has already firmly placed Europe and Germany again in the history books for achieving the audacious and unbelievable.”
German contribution to Mars exploration continues as the HRSC, which was developed by DLR and is on board ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, has been in operation since 2004, delivering high-resolution, three-dimensional color images, the spatial resolution of which surpasses previous topographical image data. These images enable scientists to analyze details with an altitude accuracy of down to 10 meters and thus acquire new knowledge about the geological development and climatic history of Mars.
Speaking of Mars, in 2014 a DLR researcher experienced what it must be like to live on the Red Planet by spending four months in a habitat on Hawaii that simulated a Martian environment. This year it was also decided that the space telescope PLATO, scheduled to launch in 2024, will search for a ‘second Earth’. “This unique European space telescope, designed to search for exoplanets, will enable German and European scientists to engage in truly cutting-edge research in this field of astronomy,” said Wörner.
Future looks also bright for German space industry as we will witness a multitude of new projects, among them the asteroid landing craft MASCOT on board the Japanese Hayabusa 2 spacecraft, or the research conducted with the flying observatory SOFIA, recently returned to California after six months of maintenance in Hamburg. Last but not least, although the last ATV was dispatched into space back in August, the German technology developed for this purpose will remain in use as part of NASA’s new Orion spacecraft.
ISRO Chairman Retires
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman Dr. Koppillil Radhakrishnan on Wednesday ended his three-decade-long career in the space agency, riding high on the success of the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) and GSLV-Mk-III that carried a human crew module to the space.
“ISRO bids a sombre farewell to its iconic leader, Dr. K. Radhakrishnan, who superannuated today,” ISRO said in a statement. “An efficient engineer, magnificent manager, an impeccable institution builder; and an inspiring leader – Dr. Radhakrishnan triumphantly led ISRO through many historic milestones in the last five years being at the helm of affairs.” Radhakrishnan took over as ISRO chairman on October 31, 2009. Space scientist Shailesh Nayak, secretary in the ministry of the earth sciences has been given an additional charge of Isro for a month till a regular appointment is made, says the department of personnel and training in an order.
India’s Mars Orbiter, currently orbiting the red planet, tweeted it’s farewell: “Bidding farewell to the one who led me up to this planet. It was an honour to be a part of your team Dr Radhakrishnan.” Radhakrishnan, a recipient of Padma- Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, was recently chosen as one of the top ten scientific personalities in 2014 by Nature Science Journal. After completing his graduation in Electrical Engineering from Kerala University, he joined Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in 1972 and rose through the ranks, in brisk space.
Radhakrishnan was handpicked by Prof. Satish Dhawan – the then Chairman of ISRO, to control and monitor the Budget and Economic Analysis activities at the ISRO headquarters. With the 12 successful PSLV missions, the successful GSLV with indigenous cryogenic stage, the Mars Orbiter Mission, the LVM-3 experimental flight with CARE module, the Six INSAT/GSAT satellites, three navigation Satellites and Six Earth Observation satellites (including RISAT-1, the first microwave imaging satellite) Radhakrishnan is leaving ISRO at its most glorified pedestal ever.
India made space history on September 24 when its low-cost Mars spacecraft was successfully placed in orbit around the red planet in its very first attempt, breaking into an elite club of three nations. MOM is the cheapest inter-planetary mission that, at just USD 74 million, costing less than the estimated USD 100 million budget of the sci-fi blockbuster “Gravity” and a tenth of NASA’s Mars mission Maven, entered the Martian orbit on September 22. European, American and Russian probes have managed to orbit or land on the planet, but after several attempts. MOM feat gave a boost to India’s global standing in space. Credit: hindustantimes.com, deccanherald.com
Second Woman Joins Team of Russian Cosmonauts
A second woman has joined the active-duty corps of Russian cosmonauts. Her name is Anna Kikina, the press-service of the Russian space agency Roscosmos said on Wednesday. “Upon completion of the general space training program and after a state certification test a panel of examiners made a decision to award the qualification ‘test cosmonaut’ to applicant Anna Kikina,” the Roscosmos press-service said. Now she is to take special and advanced training — a mandatory procedure all ‘test cosmonauts’ undergo before being assigned to a crew.
According to information available from the website of the Gagarin Space Training Center, Kikina, b. August 27, 1984, is a graduate of the Novosibirsk State Academy of Inland Waterways Transport, with degrees in engineering and economics. Also, she is a certified rescue worker. Kikina is the holder of a master of sports degree in polyathlon and rafting and has four parachute jumps to her credit.
At a certain point, early last summer the certification commission expelled Kikina from the team of Russian cosmonauts by secret ballot only to overturn its own decision a short while later. In just several months Anna Kikina completed an advanced training course, which normally lasts one year, and acquired a number of special skills, including those crucial for survival after water landing.
So far four Soviet and Russian women cosmonauts have been in space: Valentina Tereshkova, Svetlana Savitskaya, Yelena Kondakova and Yelena Serova. The latter is currently well into her first mission aboard the ISS, which began last September. Credit: TASS
Johann-Dietrich Woerner Appointed as the Next Director General of ESA
The Council of the European Space Agency (ESA) announced Thursday the appointment of Johann-Dietrich Woerner as the next Director General of ESA, for a period of four years starting on 1 July 2015. He will succeed Jean-Jacques Dordain, whose term of office ends on 30 June 2015. Woerner is currently Chairman of the Executive Board of DLR, the German Aerospace Center since March 2007.
Woerner studied civil engineering at the Technische Universität Berlin and the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, from where he graduated in 1985. In 1982, as part of his studies, he spent two years in Japan, investigating earthquake safety. Until 1990 Wörner worked for the consulting civil engineers König und Heunisch. In 1990 he returned to Darmstadt University, where he was appointed to a professorship in Civil Engineering and took over as Head of the Testing and Research Institute. Before being elected President of the Technische Universität Darmstadt in 1995, he held the position of Dean of the Civil Engineering Faculty.
He has been honoured with a series of prizes and awards such as the Prize of the Organisation of Friends of the Technische Universität Darmstadt for ‘outstanding scientific performance’. He was also appointed to the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and is a representative of the Technical Sciences Section of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Wörner has received honorary doctorates from the State University New York (USA), the technical universities of Bucharest (Romania) and Mongolia, the Saint Petersburg University for Economics and Finance (Russia), and École Centrale Lyon (France). He has been honoured by the German state of Hesse and the French government.
Woerner is Vice President of the Helmholtz Association; he is also a member of various national and international supervisory bodies, advisory councils and committees. He was a member of the board of École Centrale Paris and École Centrale Lyon, the Convention for Technical Sciences (acatech) and the supervisory board of Röhm GmbH, to name just a few. Furthermore, he was appointed to the energy expert group of the German Government. He continues to be a member of the advisory boards of several universities such as the Technische Universität Berlin and the IST Lisboa.
Mars Express Mission Extended Until the End of 2018
It follows an elliptical orbit around Mars, undisturbed, almost lonely – the orbiter Mars Express. For 11 years now – to be precise since Christmas Eve 2003 – the first and, for some time now, European Space Agency (ESA) longest-serving interplanetary mission has been travelling around our planetary neighbour. ESA recently extended the mission by two years, until 2018. Over 90 percent of the Martian surface has been recorded since 2004 – roughly two thirds in the highest possible resolution.
Mars Express hosts seven scientific instruments. HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera, OMEGA (Visible and Infrared Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer) and MARSIS (Sub-surface Sounding Radar Altimeter) are used to image and study the surface and subsurface. For atmospheric and plasma studies there is PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer), SPICAM (Ultraviolet and Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer) and ASPERA (Energetic Neutral Atoms Analyser). OMEGA is also used to the study the atmosphere, and plasma is also studied with MARSIS. A radio link to convey data between the spacecraft and Earth is provided by MaRS, the Mars Radio Science Experiment, and used to study the gravity of Mars, the atmosphere and ionosphere, surface roughness and solar corona.
HRSC, developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR) and built in collaboration with German industry partners, delivers three-dimensional data to help provide answers to scientific questions. Additionally, the experiment seeks to produce the first global, topographical image map of Mars. The nine HRSC channels (one nadir channel pointing straight down on the surface of Mars, also four colour and four stereo channels) produce image resolutions of up to 10 metres per pixel, depending on the distance to the planet’s surface. So far, the HRSC has been on active duty throughout 4165 orbits, recording the surface of Mars across a visual field extending for 50 by 200 kilometres.
At present, four orbiters circle Mars: besides Mars Express, we find NASA’ s atmospheric research satellite MAVEN (in orbit since September 2014), the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006) and the Mission 2001 Mars Odyssey, the ‘Methuselah’ among the Mars spacecraft. Then there is the Mars Science Laboratory, fitted to Rover Curiosity (busily exploring Gale Crater since 2012). But there is more. On the surface is the smaller NASA Rover Opportunity, which landed on the Red Planet just a few weeks after Mars Express arrived. It has also been operational for over 10 years, namely since January 2004 – clocking up over 40 kilometres of distance travelled, a new world record on a celestial body other than Earth itself. But it is Mars Express that holds the overall distance record around the Red Planet. In an elliptical orbit, with distances ranging between 240 and 11,000 kilometres from the planet’s surface, it has travelled 400 million kilometres – and the spacecraft will fly its 13,936 orbit on Christmas Eve. Credit: dlr.de
UK Astronaut’s Mission Logo Revealed
In partnership with ESA and the UK Space Agency, the BBC’s Blue Peter programme asked schoolchildren to design a mission patch for astronaut Tim Peake and received more than 3000 entries. The astronaut will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015 under the mission name of Principia. The name refers to Isaac Newton’s world-changing three-part text on physics, Naturalis Principia Mathematica, describing the principal laws of motion and gravity.
“Principia refers to Isaac Newton’s principal laws of gravity and motion so I drew an apple because that is how he discovered gravity,” said 13-year-old Troy, the competition winner. “Plus Tim Peake is promoting healthy eating as part of his mission and apples are healthy.”
Each ESA astronaut has a mission name and patch, often chosen in a competition held in the astronaut’s home country. In Tim’s case, the entries were reduced to 33 candidates for presentation to an expert panel of judges. The judges from ESA, Blue Peter and the UK Space Agency together chose their two favourites in each of the three age groups of 6–8, 9–11 and 12–15 years to ensure a fair chance for all applicants.
Trees, apples, spaceships and the UK were common elements but ESA graphic designer Karen Oldenburg was impressed by the variety: “The entries were amazingly diverse. It was obvious that each child had put a lot of individuality and inventiveness into each design.” Important considerations for deciding on the final six were how a design would look as a patch, the colours used and whether the children drew everything on their own.
The final decision came down to Tim himself. He had a hard time choosing: “I have been so impressed with the high standard and the number of entries. Wonderful! My final choice was not easy to make, but I chose Troy’s design because his patch was simple but included many references to my mission.” Troy will see his Principia patch flown to space and was invited to the Blue Peter television studios for the unveiling.
“Just landed in London-huge congrats to Troy for designing a brilliant patch! Thank you…I will wear it with pride,” Peake said. Ewan Vinnicombe, Blue Peter Editor, said, “It’s been fantastic to see all the thousands of colourful and creative entries we received for this Blue Peter competition. I was so impressed with them all and the winning design looks amazing. I can’t wait to see it in space.”
The five runners-up will receive their artwork framed with a signed photo from Tim. “For all you amazing runners-up, thanks for making it such a tough choice…I’ll be taking some of your designs into space too,” Peake said. Credit: ESA, gov.uk
ESA’s JUICE Mission OK’d for the Next Stage of Development
The European Space Agency’s JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission has been given the green light to proceed to the next stage of development. This approval is a milestone for the mission, which aims to launch in 2022 to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons. JUICE gained approval for its implementation phase from ESA’s Science Programme Committee during a meeting at the European Space Astronomy Centre near Madrid, Spain, on 19 and 20 November 2014.
Chosen by ESA in May 2012 to be the first large mission within the Cosmic Vision Programme, JUICE is planned to be launched in 2022 and to reach Jupiter in 2030. The mission will tour the giant planet to explore its atmosphere, magnetosphere and tenuous set of rings and will characterise the icy moons Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. Detailed investigations of Ganymede will be performed when JUICE enters into orbit around it – the first time any icy moon has been orbited by a spacecraft. During its lifetime, the mission will give us an unrivalled and in-depth understanding of the Jovian system and of these moons.
The scientific goals of the mission are enabled by its instrument suite. This includes cameras, spectrometers, a radar, an altimeter, radio science experiments and sensors used to monitor the plasma environment in the Jovian system. In February 2013, the SPC approved the payload that will be developed by scientific teams from 16 European countries, the USA and Japan, through corresponding national funding.
The JUICE spacecraft will be launched in June 2022 by Ariane 5 and will use Venus and Earth gravity assists in its 7.6 years cruise to Jupiter. After the orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on continuous observations of Jupiter’s atmosphere and magnetosphere.
During the tour, gravity assists with Callisto and Ganymede will shape the trajectory. Two targeted Europa flybys are included focusing on composition of the non water-ice material, and the first subsurface sounding of an icy moon. Additional, Callisto gravity assists will be also used to raise the orbit inclination to almost 30° and to enable observations of the Jupiter polar regions. The frequent Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situmeasurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated eight months orbital tour around Ganymede during which the spacecraft will perform detailed investigation of the moon and its environment and will eventually impact on Ganymede.
At the November 2014 meeting of the SPC, the multilateral agreement for JUICE was also approved. This agreement provides the legal framework for provision of payload equipment and ongoing mission support between funding agencies. The parties to the agreement are the European Space Agency and the funding agencies of the European countries leading the instrument developments in the JUICE mission: the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (Italy); the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (France); the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany); the Swedish National Space Board, and the United Kingdom Space Agency. Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Greece, Poland, and Switzerland participate via the PRODEX programme. Credit: ESA
|India’s Prototype of Crew Capsule for Manned Missions Back Home (Source: Indian Express)
The crew module is back home. The prototype of the crew capsule for future manned missions to space which the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) successfully tested in December arrived here on Friday morning. Over the next few months, the cupcake-shaped module would undergo tests before being put on display at the Space Museum at Vikram Sarabhai Space Center.
The dummy module was more or less built at the VSSC. While its basic structure was designed by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), the VSSC had been responsible for its integration and ‘arming’ it with heat shields and control and guidance mechanisms. The Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) had been the sole payload aboard the sub-orbital test-flight of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk-III (GSLV Mk-III) which lifted off from Sriharikota on December 18, 2014. (1/17)
It’s On: Asia’s New Space Race (Source: Daily Beast)
Few people think of India when it comes to missions to Mars, but popular joy erupted across India in September 2014 after its Mangalyaan scientific spacecraft successfully achieved orbit around the red planet. One Indian reader responded to the story on a major online news outlet by posting: “It is [a] moment of pride as India becomes [the] 1st Asian nation to reach Mars.” And understood to all Indian readers was the point that China had—after a series of Asian firsts in space—finally been surpassed.
Since China’s first human spaceflight in 2003 and its threatening anti-satellite test in 2007, Asia has seen a surge in space activity, with budgets increasing rapidly across the region. While few officials admit to the term, a “space race” is emerging in Asia. Click here. (1/17)
Energia’s International Work Unaffected by US Sanctions (Source: Sputnik)
“Our international partners are not only American. There are many others who want to work with us, and they do. We have joint ventures with many European space industry giants and we continue working with them actively,” Solntsev said in response to a question about the effects US sanctions had on Energia’s international projects. (1/16)
Russia, US Sign $1 Billion Contract on RD-181 Rocket Engines (Source: Sputnik)
Russian rocket producer Energiya has signed a $1 billion contract with US Orbital Sciences Corporation for the delivery of 60 RD-181 engines. “Energia President Vladimir Solntsev and Orbital Sciences Corporation General Director David Thompson signed a direct contract worth around $1 billion on the delivery to the United States of engines produced by Energomash [a subsidiary of Energia],” the statement says.
The contract also includes a provision on a range of services including flight training, installation of the engine on the rocket and engine tests. The contract, that took Energia three years to prepare, envisages cooperation to last 15 to 25 years, according to Solntsev. The first two engines, which are used on carrier rockets to deliver cargoes to the International Space Station, will be delivered in June 2015. (1/16)
ILS Plans 5 Proton-M Commercial Launches in 2015 (Source: Itar-Tass)
The International Launch Services’ (ILS) order portfolio for commercial launches of foreign spacecraft by Russia’s Proton carrier rocket has been completed for two years ahead, Russian United Rocket and Space Corporation (URSC) sources said. ILS said that five commercial launches are planned for 2015. The first of them is scheduled for the first quarter of the year. Previous reports said it would be the Inmarsat-5 F2 satellite to be orbited. (1/16)
Lost Beagle-2 Probe Found ‘Intact’ on Mars (Source: BBC)
British Company Aims to Send a Crowdfunded Mission to the Moon Around 2024
A British company is crowdfunding its space mission on Kickstarter, raising money to go to the Moon in 10 years’ time. Lunar Mission One aims to land on the Moon’s South Pole, drill to a depth of at least 20 metres deep, but potentially as deep as 100 metres, allowing the mission to access and analyse for the first time lunar rock dating back around 4.5 billion years. “Lunar Mission One will make a huge contribution to our understanding of the origins of our planet and the Moon and will inspire a generation to learn more about space, science and engineering – in the same way that my generation was inspired by the Apollo Moon landings,” said David Iron, the Founder of Lunar Missions Ltd and the Lunar Missions Trust.
Lunar Mission One is using crowdfunding platform Kickstarter to fund the development phase of the project. Supporters who make pledges to the project via Kickstarter will become lifetime members of the Lunar Missions Club. They will have access to a range of information and experiences relating to the project, from “Meet the Experts” events to the opportunity to have their name inscribed on the lunar landing module.Kickstarter backers will also receive rewards including a digital “memory box” for inclusion in a 21st Century time capsule that will be sent to and buried in the Moon as part of Lunar Mission One.
The company hopes to raise £600,000 for the development phase — as of Thursday it had raised £230,000 through over 2,400 backers, which is still quickly growing. Following the development phase, funded by Kickstarter, the remaining funding requirements of the project will primarily be met through sales of digital memory boxes to the general public, as well as through public sector and commercial backing.
Also included in the time capsule will be a publicly assembled, owned and authoritative record of life on Earth. This ‘public archive’ will include a record of human history and civilisation to date alongside a species database showing the biodiversity of animals and plants. The project will make the public archive available online both during development and afterwards so it can be developed further.The scientific goals of the mission would be achieved by drilling at a lunar pole. The drill will carry instruments to measure geological conditions and chemical compositions. After the drilling, instruments including seismometers will be placed into the borehole to get more accurate readings.
By drilling down to a depth of at least 20 metres, 10 times further than ever drilled before (though potentially as deep as 100 metres), we will be able to access and analyse lunar rock that is 4.5 billion years old. Studying rock from deep below the surface will allow us to understand, better than ever before, the geological composition of the Moon, the relationship it shares with our planet and the effects of the late heavy bombardment period on the inner solar system.
“Scientific exploration has always been based on innovation and ambition,” said Ian Taylor, the former Minister for Science, Technology & Space and Chair of Lunar Missions Ltd. “Lunar Mission One exemplifies this – not only in what it will seek to discover, but in reaching out to the wider public for involvement in and financing the project. Ultimately, Lunar Mission One could become an exciting template for galvanising additional resources to explore the Moon and beyond.
Education and inspiration are central to the mission, which aims to inspire a generation to learn more about space, science, engineering and technology through a worldwide programme of educational engagement. Educational partners backing the project include The Institute of Education and the Open University.
“The Moon is our nearest celestial neighbor, yet remains largely unknown beyond great orbital photographs and a few rocks from the surface. Lunar Mission One aims to profoundly change this!” said Richard Garriott, Private British-American astronaut of Soyuz TMA-13. “By targeting the polar regions now known to have water ice, and by drilling down more than 20 meters, we should gain much more interesting and useful data than previous lunar missions!”
All surplus funds raised from the project will go to a non-profit charitable Trust for supporting future space science and exploration. As overall technical advisors for the first stage of the project, Lunar Mission One has engaged RAL Space, which has been involved in developing more than 200 space missions and has supported NASA and European Space Agency missions.
“Lunar Mission One is both ambitious and innovative, demonstrating an exciting way of enabling lunar exploration. Our experience in multiple and complex space missions will play a vital role in helping coordinate the project. As well as direct exploration benefits, the mission will have longer term advantages including technological advances and knowledge,” said RAL Space Director Richard Holdaway. Lunar Mission One is being run by Lunar Missions Ltd, its operating company. It is being developed and supported by a number of leading figures and organisations in the industry with decades of experience in the science and space sectors.
Partners and advisors include RAL Space, University College London, Open University and the Institute of Education. Trustees and directors include Ian Taylor, former UK Government Science Minister; Monica Grady, Professor of Planetary & Space Science at Open University; Sir Graeme Davies, Former University Vice Chancellor; and Angela Lamont, broadcast media presenter & producer.Credit: lunarmissionone.com
Africa’s First Mission to the Moon Announced
Africa is home to 7 out of 10 of the world’s fastest-growing economies. It’s population is also the “youngest” in the world, with 50% of the population being 19 years old or younger. And amongst these young people are scores of innovators and entrepreneurs who are looking to bring homegrown innovation to their continent and share it with the outside world.
Nowhere is this more apparent than with the #Africa2Moon Mission, a crowdfunded campaign that aims to send a lander or orbiter to the Moon in the coming years.
Spearheaded by the Foundation for Space Development – a non-profit organization headquartered in Capetown, South Africa – the goal of this project is to fund the development of a robotic craft that will either land on or establish orbit around the Moon. Once there, it will transmit video images back to Earth, and then distribute them via the internet into classrooms all across Africa.
In so doing, the project’s founders and participants hope to help the current generation of Africans realize their own potential. Or, as it says on their website: “The #Africa2Moon Mission will inspire the youth of Africa to believe that ‘We Can Reach for the Moon’ by really reaching for the moon!”
Through their crowdfunding and a social media campaign (Twitter hashtag #Africa2Moon) they hope to raise a minimum of $150,000 for Phase I, which will consist of developing the mission concept and associated feasibility study. This mission concept will be developed collaboratively by experts assembled from African universities and industries, as well as international space experts, all under the leadership of the Mission Administrator – Professor Martinez.
Martinez is a veteran when it comes to space affairs. In addition to being the convener for the space studies program at the University of Cape Town, he is also the Chairman of the South African Council for Space Affairs (the national regulatory body for space activities in South Africa). He is joined by Johnathon Weltman, the Project Administrator, who is both an aeronautical engineer and the current CEO of the Foundation for Space Development.
Phase I is planned to run from Jan to Nov 2015 and will be the starting point for Phase II of #Africa2Moon, which will be a detailed mission design. At this point, the #Africa2Moon mission planners and engineering team will determine precisely what will be needed to see it through to completion and to reach the Moon.
Beyond inspiring young minds, the program also aims to promote education in the four major fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (aka STEM). Towards this end, they have pledged to commit 25% of all the funds they raise towards STEM education through a series of #Africa2Moon workshops for educators and students. In addition, numerous public engagement activities will be mounted in partnership with other groups committed to STEM education, science awareness, and outreach.
Africa is so often thought of as a land in turmoil – a place that is perennially plagued by ethnic violence, dictators, disease, drought, and famine. This popular misconception belies very positive facts about the growing economy of world’s second-largest and second-most populous continent.
That being said, all those working on the #Africa2Moon project hope it will enable future generations of Africans to bridge the humanitarian and economic divide and end Africa’s financial dependence on the rest of the world. It is also hoped that the mission will provide a platform for one or more scientific experiments, contribute to humankind’s knowledge of the moon, and form part of Africa’s contribution to global space exploration activities.
The project’s current list of supporters include the SpaceLab at the University of Cape Town, The South African Space Association, Women in Aerospace Africa, The Cape Town Science Centre, Space Commercial Services Group, Space Advisory Company, and the Space Engineering Academy. They have also launched a seed-funding campaign drive through its partnership with the UN Foundation’s #GivingTuesday initiative.
Russia’s Energomash Plans Reusable Rocket Engine
Russia’s NPO Energomash, one of the world’s leading rocket engine manufacturers, has cooked up an ambitious plan to make its engines reusable up to ten times, TASS news reports.
Reusability is the buzzword of the modern space industry. Born of exorbitant Cold War budgets, space programs across the globe have struggled over the last two decades to survive with less funding — and reusability is the key to radically cutting down costs.
Energomash has devised a novel, albeit limited, solution to the problem of returning rocket parts safely to Earth. The company proposes housing its RD-191 engine in a capsule attached to the bottom of Russia’s Angara rockets. After the engine has exhausted its fuel, the capsule will detach and fall back to Earth, protected by a heat shield on one side.
A parachute will deploy once the capsule hits the atmosphere, allowing the engine to land safely either with the help of a special airbag or small rockets to slow its descent. The added weight of this recovery system would knock 2.6 percent off of the Angara rocket’s payload capacity, or the maximum weight it can lift to a given altitude above the earth. The proposal was presented at a conference hosted by Russia’s largest space company, RSC Energia, TASS reported Friday.
On the other side of the globe, U.S.-based SpaceX is also moving forward with ambitious reusable designs. The company is working to make its Falcon 9 and upcoming Falcon Heavy rockets — which Angara is often compared to — completely reusable, with the entire rocket returning to Earth and landing itself.
Angara, the first rocket developed by the post-Soviet Russian space industry, was originally also designed to be entirely reusable. Its boosters to deploy wings after use that would allow the rocket to fly back home and land like an airplane. This design was ultimately dropped in favor of the conventional single-use approach. Credit: themoscowtimes.com
Russia Plans to Launch Remote Earth Probe Satellites
Russia plans to launch two satellites next year for remote earth probing. The satellites, Resource-P 3, which is under construction now, according to schedule, and Kanopus-V 2, are planned to be launched next year, deputy head of the Roscosmos federal space agency Mikhail Khailov told a conference on remote earth probing on Friday. The construction of Resource-P 2 is already finished.
Its launch is planned for December this year. Launches of Resources-P 4 and 5 are planned for 2016 and 2017. They will be made entirely from Russian-made components.The Roscosmos official also said that tests of Meteor-M 2 were completed.
When the documentation processing is finished, a state commission will decide when to put the satellite into operation. Meteor-M 2 was launched from Baikonur on July 8 with the Soyuz-2.1b rocket and a Fregat upper stage. The launch was originally planned for June 28, but was postponed because of Fregat problems. In the Russian orbital group are Electro-L, Reosurce-DK1, Resource-P, Kanopus-V, Meteor-M 1 and Meteor-M 2. Credit: TASS
Glasgow Prestwick Airport’s Very Good Position For UK’s First Spaceport
Scottish government-owned Glasgow Prestwick Airport is in a good position to become the UK’s first spaceport, the deputy first minister has said. But Nicola Sturgeon said ministers could not make the loss-making Ayrshire airport a preferred bidder while the process was at an early stage. Supporters of spaceport status say it could transform Prestwick. The airport was bought over by the government in a last-ditch effort to keep it open. Its 2013-14 accounts, due to be published shortly, are expected to show an annual loss of about £5m.
Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) Adam Ingram, who represents Carrick, Cumnock and Doon Valley, stressed the “exciting prospect” of Prestwick becoming a spaceport, as he said: “Should the Scottish Government’s position not be that Prestwick Airport is the preferred bid of the Scottish Government for the first UK spaceport?”
John Scott, MSP for Ayr, said the proposal was the “one truly visionary element of the document”. He said: “As the location of choice, and quite self evidently from the evidence I’ve seen it is the location of choice in Scotland, we should all get behind it, all of us as politicians and particularly the Scottish Government, because that would carry much more weight.”
Sturgeon told MSPs the government must remain neutral at this stage in the process, with eight UK sites in contention to become a spaceport – six of them in Scotland. She added: “We want to make sure that we’re doing everything to secure Scotland as the winner of this bid, wherever in Scotland that may end up being. “We may well get to the stage where the government is not neutral, not all of the locations bid or there is clearly an outstanding bid, but we’re at an early stage of this process, so I think it is important we recognise that.”
The proposal to attract a spaceport to Prestwick was laid out in a long-term vision for the future of the airport, which is used by budget airline Ryanair. Scottish ministers have committed £10m of investment to Prestwick Airport, which is going towards operating costs, a repairs backlog and improvements to the terminal building. Credit: bbc.com, stv.tv
Russia and Belarus to Use New Vostochny Space Launch Facility Jointly
Russia’s Federal Space Agency Roscosmos said it would allow Belarus to participate in national space research programmes carried out at Vostochny. The Vostochny space launch site is in Russia’s Amur region in the Far East. To begin operation next year. The facility is located near the town of Uglegorsk. More than 400 facilities, including 120 launchers, an airfield with a 4,500-meter runway, more than 170 kilometers of railways and roads are to be built at Vostochny. The first launches are to start in 2015. The construction of launch facilities for the Angara rocket will get under way in 2016.
Russia also plans to start launching manned spaceships from Vostochny in 2018. Vice-Premier Dmitry Rogozin, who visits Vostochny at least once in three months, has taken the construction works, to be finished in 2020, under personal control.“We have very tough deadlines. The Vostochny spaceport is to begin operation in 2015. We will be ready to implement not only national programs but also the programs of Belarus which is a full-fledged space power,” Yuri Makarov, the head of the Roscosmos strategic planning department, said in his speech at the Belarusian space congress in Minsk.Russia and Belarus have already created a successfully functioning orbital satellite group, which is being used in the interests of both states.
Minsk has ground-based facilities for space research: the Satellite Control Center; a command and measurement complex; a facility for receipt, handling and distribution of space information. Belarus became a full-fledged member of the space powers club in the summer of 2012 when Belarus launched its first spacecraft from Baikonur space launch facility in Kazakhstan.“The Union State /of Russia and Belarus/ have successfully implemented four programs. About 50 Belarusian and Russian enterprises are currently working on new projects,” Makarov said.
The development of a nanosatellite for Peru is one of the most promising Russian-Belarusian projects. The satellite is to carry out orbital experiments on prediction of earthquakes. The two countries are creating an inter-state system for space monitoring of emergency situations as part of a CIS cooperation programme.The new space monitoring system is to be based on the Russian GLONASS navigation system. The question will be part of the agenda of the 2015 Minsk conference of representatives of the CIS executive power bodies in charge of space cooperation. The Commonwealth of Independent States’ accession to the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters will also be a topic for discussion. Credit: TASS